اثرات آبیاری موضعی نواری بر بهره ‏وری فیزیکی و اقتصادی آب در اراضی شالی‌زاری شهرستان ساری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

2 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

3 کارشناس آموزشی گروه زراعت، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

چکیده

افزایش جمعیت، تغییرات اقلیم و مدیریت نادرست باعث بروز بحران کم آبی در جهان و به­خصوص ایران شده است. از این‌رو لازم است تغییر نگرش در مدیریت آبیاری از تاکید بر تولید در واحد سطح به بهینه‌سازی عملکرد در واحد آب مصرفی تغییر نماید. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی و ارزیابی اثر آبیاری موضعی نواری (تیپ) بر بهره‌وری فیزیکی آب (CPD) و سودمندی اقتصادی آب (NBPD) در اراضی شالیزاری و محصول برنج انجام شد. آزمایش به صورت طرح کرت­های خرد شده در سه تکرار در سال زراعی 99-1398 به اجرا در آمد. در این آزمایش، عامل اصلی روش آبیاری در چهار سطح آبیاری غرقابی (FI) و سه سطح کم­آبیاری شامل 25، 50 و 100 سانتی‌متر فاصله لوله­های فرعی (TP25، TP50، TP100) و عامل فرعی در دو سطح ارقام امیر و فجر انتخاب شد. یافته­ها نشان می­دهد تیمار آبیاری TP25 باعث شد تا بیش‌ترین مقادیر شاخص­های CPD آب مصرفی، CPD آب آبیاری و NBPD در ارقام مورد بررسی اتفاق افتد. بالاترین مقدار CPD آب مصرفی به­ترتیب در ارقام امیر و فجر 66/0 و 94/0 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب، بالاترین CPD آب آبیاری به­ترتیب در ارقام امیر و فجر 74/0 و 07/1کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب حاصل شد. همچنین بیشترین NBPD در رقم امیر و فجر به ترتیب 32107 و 40852 ریال بر مترمکعب بود. با اعمال تیمار آبیاری TP25، افزایش 36 و 63 درصدی NBPD بترتیب در ارقام امیر و فجر حاصل شد. همچنین به طور متوسط سالانه حدود 4500 متر مکعب در هکتار آب کمتری مصرف خواهد شد. بنابراین تیمار آبیاری ضمن افزایش بهره‌وری فیزیکی آب مصرفی و آبیاری، موجب افزایش سودمندی اقتصادی در هر دو رقم خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Drip Strips Irrigation (Tape) on Physical and Economic Productivity of Paddy Fields in Sari City

نویسندگان [English]

  • ghasem Gholinezhad 1
  • Mohammad Ali Gholami Sefidkouhi 2
  • Seyyed Yousef Mosavi 3
1 Department of water Engineering, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.
2 Water Engineering, sari agricultural sciences natural resources university
3 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agronomy Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University
چکیده [English]

Population growth, climate change and improper management, have caused a water shortage crisis in the world and especially in Iran. So it is necessary to change attitudes in irrigation management from the emphasis on production per unit area to maximize production per unit of water consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate the effect of localized irrigation tape (TIP) on water productivity (CPD) and water economic productivity (NBPD) in paddy fields. The experiment was carried out as a split plot design with three replications in 2019-2020 crop year. In this experiment, the main factor was irrigation method including flood irrigation (FI) and three levels of deficit irrigation; 25, 50 and 100 cm tape space (TP25, TP50, TP100) and the sub-factor was two rice cultivars; Amir and Fajr. Results showed that the highest values ​​of CPD of water consumption and water delivery and NBPD were corresponded to TP25 irrigation treatment for both cultivars. The highest CPD of water consumption was 0.66 and 0.94 kg/m3 in Amir and Fajr cultivars, respectively, and the highest CPD of irrigation water was 0.74 and 1.07 kg/m3 in Amir and Fajr cultivars, respectively. Also, the highest NBPD in Amir and Fajr cultivars were 32107 and 40852 Rials per cubic meter, respectively. The TP25 irrigation treatment increased NBPD in Amir and Fajr cultivars 36 and 63%, respectively. Also, in average about 4500 cubic meters per hectare of water will be saved annually. Therefore, this irrigation treatment increases water productivity of water consumption and water delivery and also economic benefits in both cultivars.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Economic water productivity
  • rice
  • Deficit irrigation
  • rice yield
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