ارزیابی کیفیت خاک در خاک‌های شالیزاری با عملکردهای متفاوت (مطالعه موردی: کوچصفهان استان گیلان)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان

2 دانشیار گروه خاکشناسى، دانشکده کشاورزى، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت

3 موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور-دکترای خاکشناسی

4 گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

رشد سریع جمعیت و به­دنبال آن افزایش نیاز غذایی، شناخت روابط عملکرد و شرایط خاک را ضروری می­سازد. یکی از شاخص­هایی که شرایط خاک و ویژگی­های مربوط به آن را به خوبی نشان می­دهد شاخص کیفیت خاک است. این پژوهش به­منظور تعیین اثر کیفیت خاک بر عملکرد برنج در شمال ایران (استان گیلان) انجام گردید. 64 نمونه خاک از مزراع برنج، برای اندازه­گیری ویژگی­های فیزیکی و شیمیایی موثر برکیفیت خاک تهیه و همچنین عملکرد برنج نیز در مزارع مذکور با استفاده از پلات­گذاری تعیین شد. سپس عملکرد کل منطقه به سه کلاس با عملکردهای کمتر از  4000 کیلوگرم بر هکتار (کلاس یک)، 4000 تا 4500 کیلوگرم بر هکتار (کلاس دوم) و بالاتر از 4500 کیلوگرم بر هکتار (کلاس سوم) تقسیم شد. برای تعیین شاخص کیفیت خاک از میان ویژگی­های مطالعه شده 16 ویژگی به­عنوان شاخص­های انتخابی روش کل داده­ها (TDS) و پنج ویژگی با استفاده از  تجزیه به مولفه­های اصلی به عنوان شاخص­های انتخابی روش مجموعه حداقل داده­ها (MDS) انتخاب شد. از منطق فازی برای نمره­دهی و مفهوم شاخص اشتراک برای وزن­دهی شاخص­ها استفاده و در نهایت تلفیق آنها با استفاده از روش افزایشی وزن­دار انجام شد.  بررسی نتایج شاخص کیفیت، همبستگی مثبت و بالا در دو روش TDS و MDS را نشان داد (R2=0.87). نتایج ضریب همبستگی بین عملکرد و SQI به روش TDS  (R2=0.52)  بالاتر از SQI به روش MDS (R2=0.28)  بود. در روش MDS نیز مانند روش TDSشاهد روند افزایشی در مقدار SQI کلاس­های بالاتر عملکرد بوده، اما اختلاف معنی­دار در بین کلاس دوم و سوم دیده نشد. تفاوت در بین کیفیت خاک با عملکردهای پایین­تر با روش MDS معنی­دار است اما این تفاوت در سطوح بالاتر عملکرد کمتر قابل تمیز می­باشد، زیرا با کاهش تعداد شاخص­ها دقت و حساسیت ارزیابی کیفیت خاک کاهش می­یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of Soil Quality in Paddy Soils with Different Yields (A Case Study: Kouchsfahan, Guilan Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • maryam Shakouri 1
  • Mahmoud Shabanpour 2
  • Naser Davatgar 3
  • Majid Vazifehdoust 4
1 PhD student, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Guilan
2 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Guilan
3 Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO),
4 Assistant professor, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Guilan,
چکیده [English]

Rapid growth of population, followed by increasing food demand, necessitates knowledge of the relationship between yield and soil conditions. The soil quality index (SQI) is one of the indicators showing the soil conditions and the related properties very well.This study was performed to determine the effect of soil quality on rice yield in north of Iran (Gilan province). 64 soil samples from rice fields were prepared to measure the physical and chemical properties affecting soil quality and also the yield of rice in the mentioned fields were determined using plot. Then the total yields were divided into three classes with yields of less than 4000 kg/ha (first class), 4000-4500 kg/ha (second class) and more than 4500 kg/ha (third class). Among the studied properties, 16 properties as selected indicators of total data method (TDS) and five properties using principal component analysis as selected indicators of minimum data set method (MDS) were selected to determine the soil quality index. Fuzzy logic was used for scoring and the concept of communality index was used to weight the indicators and finally they were combined using weighted additive method. The results of quality index showed a positive and high correlation between TDS and MDS methods (R2 = 0.87). The results of correlation coefficient between yield and SQI by TDS method (R2 = 0.52) were higher than the SQI by MDS method (R2 = 0.28).  In the MDS method, simmilar to TDS method, there was an increasing trend in the SQI value of higher yield classes, but there is no significant difference between the second and third classes. The difference between soil quality and lower yields with MDS method is significant, but this difference is not significant at higher yield levels, because as the number of indicators decreases, the accuracy and sensitivity of soil quality assessment decreases.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Principal component analysis
  • Rice fields
  • Soil Quality Index
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