برآورد ضریب تخلیه مجاز رطوبتی خاک برای گیاه کلزا و گندم با استفاده از برخی ویژگی‌های گیاهی و خاک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 محقق موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب

2 دانشیار دانشگاه تهران

3 استاد دانشگاه تبریز

4 استاد دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

 در پژوهش حاضر رابطه بین ضریب حساسیت گیاه به تنش (Ky) و رطوبت بحرانی که در کمتر از آن گیاه دچار تنش می­شود (qc)، در قالب یک مدل ریاضی مفهومی توسعه داده شد. ارزیابی دقت این مدل با استفاده از داده­های حاصل از آزمایشات کشت گلخانه­ای گندم و کلزا در دو خاک لوم شنی و لوم رسی بررسی گردید. نتایج تحلیل مدل نشان داد که در یک Ky ثابت، عملکرد نسبی گیاه (Yr) با اختلاف رطوبت خاک از qc(qc-q) به‌صورت خطی کاهش می­یابد. همچنین، هر چه حساسیت گیاه یا حساسیت مرحله رشد گیاه به کمبود آب بیشتر باشد (مقادیر Ky بیشتر)، شیب رابطه خطی بین Yr و (qc-q) بیشتر می­شود. به‌عبارت‌دیگر در گیاهان با مقدار Ky کم می­توان ضریب تخلیه مجاز رطوبتی را بزرگ‌تر در نظر گرفت و نیز به ازای یک Yr مشخص، حساسیت گیاه با افت رطوبت خاک به‌صورت نمایی افزایش می­یابد. مشاهدات تجربی ضمن تأیید نتایج مدل نشان داد که مقدار رطوبت بحرانی خاک لوم رسی برای هر دو گیاه برابر با cm3 cm-3 28/0 و در خاک لوم شنی برای گندم و کلزا به ترتیب برابر با 21/0 و cm3 cm-3 195/0 می‌باشد. ضریب مجاز تخلیه رطوبتی خاک برای گندم در هر دو خاک مورد مطالعه تقریباً برابر با 35/0 به دست آمد؛ اما کلزا در خاک لوم شنی دارای ضریب مجاز تخلیه رطوبتی بالاتری (44/0 F=) نسبت به خاک لوم رسی (38/0 F=) بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A model to estimate soil water depletion coefficient using plant and soil properties

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatmeh Meskini Vishkaei 1
  • Mohammad Hosein Mohammadi 2
  • Mohammad Reza Neishabouri 3
  • Farid Shekari 4
1 Water and Soil research Institute
2 University of Tehran
3 University of Tabriz
4 University of Zanjan
چکیده [English]

IIn current study, a conceptual mathematic model is developed to determine the relationship between plant response factor to water (ky) and soil critical moisture (c) that below c, plant is under stress. The evaluation of model performance was done using a set of experimental data from a green-house trial. The results showed that for a given Ky, relative plant yield (Yr) is linearly reduced by decreasing the differences soil moisture from c (c-). The greater sensitivity of plant type or growth stage to water deficit (higher Ky values) caused more slope of linear relationship between Yr and (c-). In the other words, it can be assigned more allowable depletion coefficient for the plants with low Ky values. Moreover, for a given Yr, plant sensitivity is exponentially increased by the reduction of soil moisture. In addition to confirm the model results, exprimental observations showed that the critical moisture of clay loam soil for both soil was 0.28 cm3 cm-3, while the c values of sandy loam soil for wheat and canola ware 0.21 and 0.195 cm3 cm-3, respectively. Soil allowable depletion coefficient for wheat in both soils was obtained about 0.35. Whereas, soil allowable depletion coefficient for canola in sandy loam soil (F=0.44) was more than clay loam soil (F=0.38).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil available water
  • Plant response factor
  • Soil critical moisture
  • Canola
  • Wheat
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