عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Indiscriminate use of nitrogen fertilizers causes the nitrate accumulation in agricultural products, especially vegetables. The high concentration of nitrate in vegetables can threaten the health of society.
Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate the nitrate status as one of the product quality characteristics and to estimate the nitrate daily intake and determine the hazard quotients (HQ) and calculating the probable risk of developing non-cancerous diseases arising from nitrate in cucumber, tomato and strawberry grown in Jiroft.
Research method: Taking samples from soil and fruit of greenhouses, and fields for cucumbers, greenhouses for strawberries and fields for tomatoes in Jiroft region was done during the harvest season (spring and late autumn, winter of 2019). After preparing the samples, nitrate concentration was measured by distillation method.
Results: The findings of this research showed that the average concentration (mg/kg fresh weight) of nitrates in strawberries (55.23), tomatoes (16.86), greenhouse cucumbers (64.16), and field cucumbers (44.39) is less than the limit of nitrates based on the Russian and the Iran national standard. The calculated daily intake for all receptor groups in the present study was lower than the permissible limit (3.7 mg/kg- body weight). Hazard Quotients in all products and for all receptor groups were less than 1, with the lowest amount in strawberries for girls under 6 years old (0.00086) and the highest amount in greenhouse cucumbers for girls under 6 years old and boys 7-14 years old (0.0615). Therefore, strawberry has the least and greenhouse cucumber has the most health threat potential for the health of consumers in the region.
Always there are some uncertainties in risk assessment studies. One source of uncertainties usually is the assumptions that were taken before starting the calculations, the assumptions in this study can be listed as below:
1-samples are good representatives for cucumbers, tomatoes, and strawberries produced in Jiroft region,
2-all cucumbers, tomatoes, and strawberries consumed by residents of Jiroft, grown in Jiroft city,
3-life length was assumed to be 70 years,
The other source of uncertainties in this research can be nitrate concentration in samples and information about body weight and food consumption rate of people in Jiroft. Errors in nitrate analysis in the laboratory and related uncertainties were reduced using between laboratories quality control and checking the results with a reference laboratory. There is no specific value for body weight and food basket related to different cities or different age and sex groups, in Iran. Iranian food basket was published almost 10 years ago. Calculations in this research was done using Iranian food basket.
Conclusion: According to the risk index of less than 1 for all age groups, there is no possibility of encountering non-cancerous diseases caused by nitrates through the consumption of vegetables in Jiroft region.