Abbas, T., Rizwan, M., Ali, S., Adrees, M., Mahmood, A., Zia-ur-Rehman, M., Ibrahim, M., rshad M. and Qayyum, M. F. (2018). Biochar application increased the growth and yield and reduced cadmium in drought stressed wheat grown in an aged contaminated soil. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 148, 825-833.
Ahmadi K. Ebadzadeh H.Hatami, F., Hosseinpour R., Abdehshah, h. And Kazemian A. (2020a). Agricultural Statistics of 1398. Volume One: Crops. Ministry of Agriculture.
Ali Doust, A., and Afioni, M., and Haj Abbasi, M., and Mossadeghi, M. (2019). Application of multivariate statistical methods in evaluating soil quality indicators in the semi-arid region of Lordegan. Applied Soil Research, 7 (3), 192-206. (In farsi).
Baiamonte, G., Crescimanno, G., Parrino, F. and Pasquale, C. D. (2019). Effect of biochar on the physical and structural properties of a sandy soil. Catena. 175:294-303.
Blake, G. R., and Hartge, K. H. (1986). Bulk density 1. Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods, (methodsofsoilan1), 363-375.
Blanco-Canqui, H. (2017). Biochar and soil physical properties. Review and Analysis-Soil Physics and Hydrology. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 81:687-711.
Bremner, J. M. (1965). Total nitrogen. p. 1148-1158. In C. A. Black (ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Monograph. No. 9. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.
Chen, Y., Chen, W., Lin, Y. C., Cheng, J. Z., and Pan, W. J. (2015). Effects of biochar on the micro-ecology of tobacco-planting soil and physiology of flue-cured tobacco. Ying Yong Sheng tai xue bao= The Journal of Applied Ecology, 26(12), 3781-3787
Esmaeelnejad, L., Shorafa, M., Gorji, M., and Hosseini, S. M. (2017). Impacts of woody biochar particle size on porosity and hydraulic conductivity of biochar-soil mixtures: an incubation study. Communications in soil science and plant analysis. 48(14), 1710-1718.
Fu, G., Qiu, X., Xu, X., Zhang, W., Zang, F., and Zhao, C. (2021). The role of biochar particle size and application rate in promoting the hydraulic and physical properties of sandy desert soil. Catena, 207, 105607.
Gee, G. W., and Bauder, J. W. (1986). Particle-size analysis 1. Methods of soil analysis: Part 1—Physical and mineralogical methods, (methodsofsoilan1), 383-411.
Hazelton, P., and B. Murphy. (2007). Interpreting soil test results: what do all the numbers mean? CSIRO publishing, Australia.
Houba, V. J. G., Temminghoff, E. J. M., Gaikhorst, G. A., and Van Vark, W. (2000). Soil analysis procedures using 0.01 M calcium chloride as extraction reagent. Communications in soil science and plant analysis, 31(9-10), 1299-1396.
Ismailzadeh, N., and Nikbakht, R. (2019). Comparison of variance homogeneity tests in a randomized complete block design. Journal of Statistical Sciences - Iranian Journal of Statistics Association, 12 (2), 323-340. (In Farsi)
Jin, L., Wei, D., Yin, D., Zhou, B., Ding, J., Wang, W and Wang, L. (2020). Investigations of the effect of the amount of biochar on soil porosity and aggregation and crop yields on fertilized black soil in northern China. Plos one, 15(11), e0238883.
Keller, G. (2015). Statistics for management and economics, abbreviated. Cengage Learning.
Klute, A. (1986). Water retention: laboratory methods. Methods of soil analysis: part 1 physical and mineralogical methods, (methodsofsoilan1), 635-662.
Lehmann, J., Czimczik, C., Laird, D., and Sohi, S. (2012). Stability of biochar in soil. In Biochar for environmental management (pp. 215-238).
Leng, L., Xiong, Q., Yang, L., Li, H., Zhou, Y., Zhang, W., Jang, Sh., Li, H. and Huang, H. (2020). An overview on engineering the surface area and porosity of biochar. Science of the Total Environment. 144204.
Li, Q. Q., Xu, C. Y., Geng, Z. C., Zhang, J. C., Chen, S. L., Wang, H. L., Zhang, Y., Yun, F. Y., Yang, L., and Dong, S. H. (2019). Impact of biochar on soil bulk density and aggregates of Lou soil. Huan Jing ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue, 40(7), 3388-3396.
Liu, X. H., Han, F. P., and Zhang, X. C. 2012. Effect of biochar on soil aggregates in the loess plateau: results from incubation experiments. International Journal Agricultural Biology. 14, 975–979.
Liu, X., Mao, P., Li, L., and Ma, J. (2019). Impact of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas intensity: A meta-analysis. Science of the Total Environment. 656, 969- 976.
Maniscalco, M., Infurna, G., Caputo, G., Botta, L., and Dintcheva, N. T. (2021). Slow Pyrolysis as a Method for Biochar Production from Carob Waste: Process Investigation and Products’ Characterization. Energies, 14(24), 8457.
Nasimi, P. Karimi, A. and Gerami,Z. (2020). Long-term effects of biochar from palm leaves on porosity and stability of sandy loam soil structure. Journal of Soil Science Research, 34(2), 200-215. (In Farsi)
Nelson, D. W., and Sommers, L. E. (1996). Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. Methods of soil analysis part 3 chemical methods, (methodsofsoilan3), 961-1010.
O’toole, A., Moni, C., Weldon, S., Schols, A., Carnol, M., Bosman, B., and Rasse, D. P. (2018). Miscanthus biochar had limited effects on soil physical properties, microbial biomass, and grain yield in a four-year field experiment in Norway. Agriculture, 8(11), 171.
Obia, A., Mulder, J., Martinsen, V., Cornelissen, G., and Børresen, T. (2016). In situ effects of biochar on aggregation, water retention and porosity in light-textured tropical soils. Soil and Tillage Research, 155, 35-44.
Olsen, S. R., and Sommers L. E. (1982). Phosphorus. p. 403–427. In A.L. Page et al. Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. 2nd ed. Agron. Monogr. No. 9. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.
Osooli, H., Ahmad, K., Shirani, H., Tabatabaea, S.H. (2021). Effect of type, amount and biochar particles size on porosity, penetration resistance and stability of aggregates in a calcareous soil. Journal of Soil and Water Resources Protection (Scientific-Research), 11 (1), 113-128. (In Farsi)
Rajkovich S., Enders A., Hanley K., Hyland C., Zimmerman A. R., and Lehmann J. (2012). Corn growth and nitrogen nutrition after additions of biochars with varying properties to a temperate soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 48(3), 271-284.
Reynolds, W. D., Drury, C. F., Tan, C. S., Fox, C. A., and Yang, X. M. (2009). Use of indicators and pore volume-function characteristics to quantify soil physical quality. Geoderma, 152(3-4), 252-263.
Richards, L.A. (1954). Diagnosis and Importance of Salin and Alkali Soil. U.S.D.A. Handbook, No. 60, Washington, D.C.
Lu, S. G., Sun, F. F., and Zong, Y. T. (2014). Effect of rice husk biochar and coal fly ash on some physical properties of expansive clayey soil (Vertisol). Catena, 114, 37-44.
Sohi, S. P., Krull, E., Lopez-Capel, E., and Bol, R. (2010). A review of biochar and its use and function in soil. In Advances in agronomy (Vol. 105, pp. 47-82). Academic Press.
Song, W., and Guo, M. (2012). Quality variations of poultry litter biochar generated at different pyrolysis temperatures. Journal of analytical and applied pyrolysis, 94, 138-145.
Tanure, M. M. C., da Costa, L. M., Huiz, H. A., Fernandes, R. B. A., Cecon, P. R., Junior, J. D. P., and da Luz, J. M. R. (2019). Soil water retention, physiological characteristics, and growth of maize plants in response to biochar application to soil. Soil and Tillage Research, 192, 164-173.
Thomas, G.W. (1996). Soil pH and soil acidity. Methods of soil analysis part 3 chemical methods, (methodsofsoilan3), 475-490.
Verheijen, F. G., Zhuravel, A., Silva, F. C., Amaro, A., Ben-Hur, M., and Keizer, J. J. (2019). The influence of biochar particle size and concentration on bulk density and maximum water holding capacity of sandy vs sandy loam soil in a column experiment. Geoderma, 347, 194-202.
Wu, G. L., Yang, Z., Cui, Z., Liu, Y., Fang, N. F., and Shi, Z.H. (2016). Mixed artificial grasslands with more roots improved mine soil infiltration capacity. Journal of Hydrology, 535, 54-60.
Wu, W., Yang, M., Feng, Q., McGrouther, K., Wang, H., Lu, H., and Chen, Y. (2012). Chemical characterization of rice straw-derived biochar for soil amendment. Biomass and bioenergy, 47, 268-276.
Zhang, J., Amonette, J. E., and Flury, M. (2021). Effect of biochar and biochar particle size on plant-available water of sand, silt loam, and clay soil. Soil and Tillage Research, 104992.
Juriga, M., and Šimanský, V. (2018). Effect of biochar on soil structure—Review. Acta Fytotech. Zootech, 21, 11-19
YazdanPanahi, A., and Ahmadali, Kh., And Zare, S., and Jafari, M. (2019). The effect of two different biochars on the soil physical properties affecting irrigation management in desert regions. Iranian Soil and Water Research (Iranian Agricultural Sciences), 50 (4), 965-975. (In Farsi)