ارزیابی تاثیر مدیریت‌های مختلف تغذیه بر عملکرد و بهره اقتصادی گیاه برنج (Oryza sativa L)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران

2 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران.

3 موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

مدیریت عناصر غذایی همانند توصیه نهاده‌های کودی برای دستیابی به محصول پایدار اقتصادی گیاه برنج ضروری است. برنامه‌های مدیریت عناصر غذایی برای شرایط هر مزرعه باید ضمن بهینه‌سازی تولید و سود کشاورز، دارای کمترین اثرات نامطلوب زیست محیطی باشد. این مطالعه با هدف تعیین مناسب‌ترین مدیریت تغذیه گیاه برنج در اراضی شالیزاری از جنبه عملکرد و بهره اقتصادی از سال 1397 به مدت دو سال انجام شد. در این بررسی تعداد ده مزرعه در بخش کوچصفهان که از نظر ویژگی‌های خاک و مدیریت تغذیه متفاوت بودند، انتخاب شدند. سپس در هر مزرعه شش کرت آماده ‌و تیمارهای کودی شامل N0 (بدون نیتروژن)،  P0(بدون فسفر)، K0 (بدون پتاسیم) و N1P1K1 (توصیه کودی عمومی موسسه تحقیقات برنج)، N2P2K2 (توصیه کودی موسسه تحقیقات برنج بر مبنای آزمایش خاک) و N3P3K3 (توصیه کودی بر اساس آزمایش خاک به اضافه مصرف کود کامل و کود محرک رشد) در آنها اعمال و با مدیریت کودی عرف زارع مقایسه شدند. در این پژوهش ویژگی‌های مرتبط با حاصلخیزی خاک و عملکرد گیاه اندازه‌گیری و عرضه نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم بومی خاک محاسبه شدند. بررسی‌ها نشان داد عرضه بومی نیتروژن و فسفر خاک اراضی به ترتیب در دامنه 20 تا 37 و 3 تا 9 کیلوگرم در هکتار کم بودند. تجزیه واریانس مرکب داده‌ها نشان داد اثر تیمارهای کودی بر عملکرد شلتوک، در سطح احتمال 5 درصد معنی‌دار‌ بودند و بیشترین میانگین عملکرد مربوط به تیمار N3P3K3 به مقدار 3968 کیلوگرم در هکتار بدست آمد. اما این توصیه اختلاف معنی‌داری با تیمار (N2P2K2) با میانگین عملکرد 3914 کیلوگرم در هکتار نداشت. این دو توصیه به ترتیب میانگین عملکرد برنج را به مقدار 259 و 313 کیلوگرم در هکتار نسبت به عملکرد مدیریت عرف زراع به شکل معنی‌دار افزایش دادند. بهره اقتصادی حاصل از اعمال مدیریت تغذیه N2P2K2 با N3P3K3 اختلاف معنی‌داری نداشتند، اما نسبت به مدیریت عرف زارع دارای اختلاف معنی‌داری بودند. این یافته‌ها نشان داد که برای تولید پایدار اقتصادی برنج لازم است در کنار نوع، مقدار و زمان مصرف نهاده‌های کود به موازنه بهره- هزینه توجه شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the Effect of Different Nutritional Managements on Yield and Economic Benefit of Rice Plant (Oryza sativa L)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahariar babazadeh jafari 1
  • mohmmad feizian 2
  • Naser Davatgar 3
1 Department of Soil Science Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khorram Abad, Iran.
2 Department of Soil Science Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khorram Abad, Iran.
3 Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj
چکیده [English]

Nutrient management, as recommended by fertilizers, is essential for achieving an economically sustainable rice crop. Nutrient management programs for each farm condition should have the least adverse environmental effects while optimizing farmer's production and profits. This study was conducted to determine the most appropriate rice plant nutrition management in paddy fields in terms of yield and economic benefit from 1397 for two years. In this study, ten farms were selected in Kuchesfahan section, that were different in terms of soil characteristics and nutritional management. Then, in each field, six plots were prepared and fertilizer treatments including N0 (without nitrogen), P0 (without phosphorus), K0 (without potassium) and N1P1K1 (general fertilizer recommendation of Rice Research Institute), N2P2K2 (fertilizer recommendation of rice research institute based on soil testing) and N3P3K3 (fertilizer recommendation based on soil test plus full fertilizer and growth stimulant fertilizer) were applied in them and compared with the customary fertilizer management of the farmer. In this study, characteristics related to soil fertility and crop yield were measured and soil nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium supply were calculated. The results showed that indigenous supply of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil was low in the range of 20 to 37 and 3 to 9 kg.ha-1, respectively. Combined analysis of data variance showed that the effect of fertilizer treatments on paddy yield was significant at 5% probability level and the highest average yield related to N3P3K3 treatment was 3968 kg.ha-1. But this recommendation did not differ significantly from the treatment (N2P2K2) with an average yield of 3914 kg.ha-1. These two recommendations significantly increased the average rice yield by 259 and 313 kg ha-1, respectively, compared to the usual crop management yield. The economic benefits of N2P2K2 nutrition management practices were not significantly different from N3P3K3, however they were significantly different from the management of farmer custom. These findings showed that for economically sustainable production of rice, it is necessary to pay attention to the interest-cost balance along with the type, amount and time of fertilizer inputs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • rice
  • Economic interest
  • Fertilizer
  • Paddy yield
  • Indigenous supply
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