بررسی الگوی مکانی و زمانی جذب آب توسط ریشه گیاه ذرت و کلزا تحت تنش کم آبی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک. دانشکده مهندسی و فن آوری کشاورزی. پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی. دانشگاه تهران

2 گروه خاکشناسی دانشگاه بایروت، بایروت، آلمان

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف بررسی الگوی مکانی و زمانی جذب آب در شرایط رطوبتی بهینه و تنش کم­آبی صورت گرفت. به این منظور، دو گیاه ذرت و کلزا با دو الگوی توسعه ریشه متفاوت در گلدان­هایی با ابعاد 48 در 62 سانتی­متر و در چهار تکرار کشت گردید. فضای داخلی هر گلدان به 18 ناحیه تقریبا مساوی تقسیم گردید و سپس با خاکی با بافت لوم شنی  که با استفاده از یک لایه 5/2  سانتی متری از شن درشت از یکدیگر جدا شده بوده­اند پر گردید. این لایه شن درشت به منظور قطع هیدرولیکی ناحیه های مختلف استفاده گردید. سپس با استفاده از تانسیومترهای دست­ساز، مکش ماتریک ثابت و برابر در همه بخش­های خاک اعمال و نیز مقدار جذب آب از هر کدام از این بخش­های خاک در طی زمان اندازه­گیری شد. با توجه به تثبیت مکش ماتریک و در نتیجه رطوبت خاک و عدم زهکشی و تبخیر مقدار جذب آب معادل تعرق در نظر گرفته شد. در انتها دو گلدان از هر کشت با افزایش مکش ماتریک توده خاک تحت تنش کم آبی قرار گرفت. پس از  استقرار کامل گیاهان، تعرق به صورت روزانه اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که در هر دو گیاه بیشترین میزان جذب آب در شرایط بهینه رطوبتی از لایه اول (0-10 سانتی­متر)  و دوم (5/12-5-22 سانتی­متر) صورت گرفت، اما با اعمال تنش خشکی، سهم لایه­های تحتانی در تامین آب مورد نیاز تعرق نسبت به لایه سطحی بیشتر شد. تغییر الگوی جذب آب به وضعیت هیدرولیکی  خاک و مقاومتهای عرضی و طولی ریشه و خاک نسبت داده شد. در پی خشکی خاک با افزایش دو مقدار مقاومت هیدرولیکی خاک (افزایش 3000 حدود برابری مقاومت هیدرولیکی خاک) و مقاومت هیدرولیکی عرضی ریشه که به صورت سری قرار گرفته­اند، افت پتانسیل هیدرولیکی آب درون آوندهای چوبی از طوقه تا نواحی نوک ریشه کاهش یافته و امکان برقراری شیب پتانسیل در عرض نواحی انتهایی  ریشه فراهم شده و جذب آب در این بخش­ها افزایش می­یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of Spatio-temporal Variation of Root Water Uptake of Corn and Canola under Drought Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Hosein Mohammadi 1
  • Maedeh Hojjati 1
  • Mohsen Zarebanadkouki 2
  • Mohsen Farahbakhsh 1
  • Mahdi Shorafa 1
1 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology. College of Agriculture and Natural Resources. University of Tehran
2 Department of Soil Science .Akademischer Rat, University of Bayreuth, Germany
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal variation of plant water uptake under optimal moisture conditions and drought stress. Corn and rapeseed plants with two different root development patterns were planted in pots with 48 by 62 cm dimensions in four replications. The internal space of each pot was divided into 18 almost hydraulically isolated regions and then filled with sandy loam soil. The hydraulic isolation was performed by a layer of 2.5 cm of coarse sand. Matric suction of soil was buffered, and the water use was simultaneously measured using handmade tensiometers at suction 40cm. In the end, two pots from each culture were phased with drought stress by increasing the suction of the soil to 100cm. The results showed that both plants extract water from the first (0-10 cm) and the second layer (12.5-22.5 cm) rather than deeper soil under optimal moisture conditions, and tend to uptake more water from deeper and afar regions under drought stress. The water uptake pattern was attributed to the radial and axial hydraulic resistances of roots and soil hydraulic resistance. The hydraulic resistance of soil and root (radial component) becomes more than axial root resistance which results in the less decline of hydraulic potential xylems from proximal to distal regions. Then, the high potential gradient is transversally established across distal roots and promotes water uptake.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Root hydraulic conductance
  • Drought
  • transpiration
 
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