تأثیر تنش سرب بر رشد و محتوای عناصر معدنی گیاه خارمریم (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn) و افسنطین (Artemisia absinthium L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مرتعداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی جنگل، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، صندوق پستی 578

3 گروه آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

4 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

شناخت پاسخ­های مورفوآناتومیکی، فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی گیاهان در معرض فلزهای سنگین، از اهمیت بالایی برای احیای پوشش گیاهی مناطق معدنی برخوردار است. در این پژوهش اثر سرب بر رشد و مقادیر عناصر غذایی در گیاه خارمریم و افسنطین بررسی شد. آزمایش فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار در شرایط گلخانه­ای و با اعمال محلول نیترات سرب در غلظت­های صفر (شاهد)، 300 و 600 میلی­گرم در لیتر انجام شد. پس از رسیدن به رشد مطلوب، گیاهان برداشت شده و ویژگی­های رویشی و مقدار کلسیم، منیزیم، پتاسیم، فسفر، آهن، روی، منگنز، سرب و مس در اندام هوایی و ریشه اندازه­گیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش غلظت سرب، رشد اندام هوایی و زیرزمینی افسنطین تحت تاثیر قرار نگرفت اما زیتوده ریشه و حجم ریشه خارمریم به طور معنی­داری در غلظت بالای سرب کاهش یافت. با افزایش غلظت سرب، انباشت سرب در ریشه هر دو گیاه و در اندام هوایی خارمریم افزایش معنی­داری نشان داد. بیشترین سرب جذب شده در اندام هوایی و ریشه به­ترتیب با 73/14 و 16/57 میلی­گرم در کیلوگرم برای خارمریم بود. فاکتور انتقال سرب در هر دو گیاه کمتر از یک به­دست آمد. غلظت آهن در اندام هوایی خارمریم به طور معنی­داری در تیمار سرب افزایش یافت. غلظت منگنز در اندام هوایی خارمریم در تنش سرب بیشتر از افسنطین بود. با توجه به حضور طبیعی این گیاهان در باطله­های زغال سنگ و توانایی رشد و انباشت سرب در غلظت­های سمی این فلز، می­توان از آنها برای اصلاح مناطق مشابه یا با آلودگی سرب استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Lead Stress on Growth and Mineral Elements of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn and Artemisia absinthium L.

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nateq Lashkari Sanami 1
  • Jamshid Ghorbani 1
  • Seyyed Mohammad Hojjati 2
  • Ghorban Vahabzadeh 3
  • Babak Motesharezadeh 4
1 Department of Range Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Sciences and Forest Engineering, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, P.O.Box:# 578
3 Department of Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
4 Soil Science Department, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Identifying morphoanatomica, physiological and biochemical responses of plants exposed to heavy metals is important for the vegetation restoration on coal mine sites. In this study, the effects of lead (Pb) were assessed on the growth and mineral nutrient content of Artemisia absinthium and Silybum marianum. A factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design was conducted with three replicates in a glasshouse using Pb(NO3)2 at 0 (control), 300 and 600 mg/L as treatment. After two months of the growth period, plants were harvested and their growth characteristics and mineral elements were measured for roots and shoots. The results showed that there was no effect of Pb stress on roots and shoots of A. absinthium while root biomass and volume of S. marianum significantly reduced under Pb treatments. The Pb content in roots of both plant species and in shoots of S. marianum increased. The maximum level of Pb accumulation was found in shoots and roots of S. marianum with 14.73 and 57.16 mg/kg dry matter, respectively. The Pb translocation factor was less than one for both plant species. Fe content in the shoot of S. marianum significantly increased under Pb stress. Mn concentration in the shoot of S. marianum was significantly greater than that in A. absinthium. According to the presence of these plants on coal mine waste and their abilities to grow and accumulate Pb in high concentrations, they can be used for soil remediation in a similar situations or in Pb-contaminated soils. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Coal waste
  • Heavy metals
  • Phytoremediation
  • reclamation
Abolghasemi, S., Naderi, R., Motesharezade, B. and Salami, S.A. (2020). Evaluation of lead accumulation in different parts of violet (Viola tricolor) and reaction of the plant to lead oxidative stress. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 51(8), 1997-2006. (In Farsi)
Aguilar, J., Dorronsoro, C., Fernandez, E., Fernandez, J., Garcia, I., Martin, F. and Simon, M. (2004). Soil pollution by a pyrite mine spill in Spain: evolution in time. Environmental Pollution, 132(3), 395-401.
Alaboudi, K.A., Ahmed, B. and Brodie, G. (2018). Phytoremediation of Pb and Cd contaminated soils by using sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plant. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 63(1), 123-127.
Ali, H., Khan, E. and Sajad, M.A. (2013). Phytoremediation of heavy metals-concepts and applications. Chemosphere, 91(7), 869-881.
Almeida, A.A.F.D., Valle, R.R., Mielke, M.S. and Gomes, F.P. (2007). Tolerance and prospection of phytoremediator woody species of Cd, Pb, Cu and Cr. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 19, 83-98.
Alvarenga, P.M., Araujo, M.F. and Silva, J.A.L. (2004). Elemental uptake and root-leaves transfer in Cistus ladanifer L. growing in a contaminated pyrite mining area (Aljustrel-Portugal). Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 152(1-4), 81-96.
Amanifar, S., Aliasgharzad, N., Najafi, N., Oustan, S.H. and Bolandnazar, S. (2012). Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on lead phytoremediation by Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Water and Soil Science, 22(1), 155-170. (In Farsi)
Asati, A., Pichhode, M. and Nikhil, K. (2016). Effect of heavy metals on plants: an overview. International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management, 5(3), 56-66.
Baker, A.J. (1981). Accumulators and excluders‐strategies in the response of plants to heavy metals. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 3(1-4), 643-654.
Barker, A.V. and Pilbeam, D.J. (2015). Handbook of Plant Nutrition. 2nd edition, Boca Raton, Florida, CRC Press.
Bouyoucos, C.J. (1962). Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soil. Agronomy Journal. 54: 464-465.
Bremner, J.M. (1996). Nitrogen-total. In D.L., Sparks, A.L., Page, P.A., Helmke, R.H., Loeppert, P.N., Soltanpour, M.A., Tabatabai, C.T., Johnston, M.E., Sumner (Ed.), Method of soil analysis. Soil Science Society of America, (pp. 1085-1122). Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Cakmak, I. (2005). The role of potassium in alleviating detrimental effects of abiotic stresses in plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 168(4), 521-530.
Chaney, R.L. (1989). Toxic element accumulation in soils and crops: protecting soil fertility and agricultural food chains In B., Bar-Yosef, N.J., Barrow, J. Goldshmid, (Ed.), Inorganic contaminants in the vadose zone, (pp. 140–158). Springer, Berlin.
Chaoua, S., Boussaa, S., El Gharmali, A. and Boumezzough, A. (2019). Impact of irrigation with wastewater on accumulation of heavy metals in soil and crops in the region of Marrakech in Morocco. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 18(4), 429-436.
Emami, A. (1996). Plant Analysis Methods, Bulliten No. 982. Taat Publications, Tehran, Iran
Fallah Huseini, H., Hemati, A.R., Alavian, S.A. (2004). A review of herbal medicine: Silybum marianum. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 3(11), 14-24. (In Farsi)
Gandomi Nasrabadi, H., Abbaszadeh, S., Tayyar Hashtjin, N. and Yamrali, I. (2012). Study of chemical composition of essential oil of afsantine (Artemisia absinthium) and inhibitory effects of the essential oil and its aqueous and alcoholic extracts on some food borne bacterial pathogens. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 11(42), 120-127. (In Farsi)
Gopal, R. and Rizvi, A.H. (2008). Excess lead alters growth, metabolism and translocation of certain nutrients in radish. Chemosphere, 70(9), 1539-1544.
Helmke, P.H. and Sparks D.L. (1996). Potassium. In D.L., Sparks, A.L., Page, P.A., Helmke, R.H., Loeppert, P.N., Soltanpour, M.A., Tabatabai, C.T., Johnston, M.E., Sumner (Ed.), Method of soil analysis. Soil Science Society of America, (pp. 551-574). Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Lashkari Sanami, N., Ghorbani, J., Hodjati, S., Vahabzadeh Kebria, G. and Motesharezadeh, B. (In press). Seed germination of plants grown in coal mine wastes in response to Copper, Lead, and Cadmium stress. Environmental Sciences, (In Farsi)
Lamhamdi, M., El Galiou, O., Bakrim, A., Nóvoa-Muñoz, J.C., Arias-Estévez, M., Aarab, A. and Lafont, R. (2013). Effect of lead stress on mineral content and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) seedlings. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 20(1), 29-36.
Loeppert, R.H. and Suarez, D.L. (1996). Carbonate and gypsum, In D.L., Sparks, A.L., Page, P.A., Helmke, R.H., Loeppert, P.N., Soltanpour, M.A., Tabatabai, C.T., Johnston, M.E., Sumner (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3-Chemical Methods. Soil Science Society of America, (pp. 437-474). Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Mahdavian, K., Ghaderian, S.M. and Torkadeh Mahani, M. (2016). The effect of different concentrations of lead on some physiological parameters in two populations of Harmal (Peganum harmala L.). Journal of Cell and Tissue, 6(4), 543-555. (In Farsi)
Marschner, H. and Romheld, V. (1994). Strategies of plants for acquisition of iron. Plant and Soil, 165, 261-274.
Masto, R.E., George, J., Rout, T.K. and Ram, L.C. (2017). Multi element exposure risk from soil and dust in a coal industrial area. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 176, 100-107.
Motesharezadeh, B., Aghaei, L. and Savaghebi, G.R. (2015). Effect of cadmium and lead application on uptake of these heavy metals and growth in two Pinto bean cultivars. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences, 7(2), 257-271. (In Farsi)
Motesharezadeh, B. and Savaghebi, G.R. (2014). Phytoremediation or Green Remediation, Tehran, University of Tehran Press.
Naghavi, F., Iranbakhsh, A. and Majd, A. (2011). The effects of zinc and lead on seedling growth of (Glycine max L.). Plant and Ecosystem, 7(28), 81-97. (In Farsi)
Najafi, N. and Sarhangzadeh, E. (2014). Effects of Soil Salinization and Waterlogging on the Concentrations of Some Macronutrients and Sodium in Corn Shoot. Water and Soil Science, 24(3), 259-275. (In Farsi)
Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S. and Dean, L. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorous in soil by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. United States Department of Agriculture. United States Government. Print Office, Washington, D.C.
Oves, M., Saghir Khan, M., Huda Qari, A., Nadeen Felemban, M. and Almeelbi, T. (2016). Heavy metals: biological importance and detoxification strategies. Journal of Bioremediation and Biodegradation, 7(2), 1-15.
Page, A.L. (1982). Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America.
Peng, J.S., Guan, Y.H., Lin, X.J., Xu, X.J., Xiao, L., Wang, H.H. and Meng, S. (2021). Comparative understanding of metal hyperaccumulation in plants: a mini-review. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 43(4), 1599-1607.
Pourrut, B., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., Winterton, P. and Pinelli, E. (2011). Lead uptake, toxicity, and detoxification in plants. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 213, 113-136.
R Core Team (2019) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Available at http://www.R-project.org.
Reichman, S.M. (2002). The responses of plants to metal toxicity: A review focusing on copper, manganese and zinc. In S.M., Reichman (Ed.), Symptoms and visual evidence of toxicity Melbourne Australian minerals and energy environment foundation. (pp. 22-26). Melbourne.
Rhoades, J.D. (1996). Salinity: electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. In D.L., Sparks, A.L., Page, P.A., Helmke, R.H., Loeppert, P.N., Soltanpour, M.A., Tabatabai, C.T., Johnston, M.E., Sumner (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3-Chemical Methods. Soil Science Society of America, (pp. 417-436). Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Ruley, A.T., Sharma, N.C., Sahi, S.V., Singh, S.R. and Sajwan, K.S. (2006). Effects of lead and chelators on growth, photosynthetic activity and Pb uptake in Sesbania drummondii grown in soil. Environmental Pollution, 144(1), 11-18.
Ryan, J., Estefan, G., and Rashid, A. (2007). Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory Manual. ICARDA.
Sharma, P. and Dubey, R.S. (2005). Lead toxicity in plants. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 17, 35-52.
Sychta, K., Słomka, A., Suski, S., Fiedor, E., Gregoraszczuk, E. and Kuta, E. (2018). Suspended cells of metallicolous and nonmetallicolous Viola species tolerate, accumulate and detoxify zinc and lead. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 132, 666-674.
Tafvizi, M. and Motesharezadeh, B. (2014). Effects of lead on iron, manganese, and zinc concentrations in different varieties of maize (Zea mays). Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 45(14), 1853-1865.
Thomas, G.W.  (1996). Soil pH and soil acidity. In D.L., Sparks, A.L., Page, P.A., Helmke, R.H., Loeppert, P.N., Soltanpour, M.A., Tabatabai, C.T., Johnston, M.E., Sumner (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Soil Science Society of America, (pp. 475-490). Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
ul Hassan, Z., Ali, S., Rizwan, M., Ali, Q., Haider, M.Z., Adrees, M. and Hussain, A. 2017. Role of iron in alleviating heavy metal stress. In Naeem, M, Ansari, A.A., Gill, S.S. (Eds.) Essential Plant Nutrients, Uptake, Use Efficiency and Management. (pp. 335-350). Springer, Cham.
Verma, S. and Dubey, R.S. 2003. Lead toxicity induces lipid peroxidation and alters the activities of antioxidant enzymes in growing rice plants. Plant Science, 164(4): 645-655.
Walkley, A. and Black, I.A. (1934). An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil science, 37(1), 29-38.
Yilmaz, K., Akinci, I.E. and Akinci, S. (2009). Effect of lead accumulation on growth and mineral composition of eggplant seedlings (Solarium melongena). New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 37(3), 189-199.
Zengin, F.K. and Munzuroglu, O. (2005). Effects of some heavy metals on content of chlorophyll, proline and some antioxidant chemicals in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Botanica, 47(2), 157-164.
Zhang, E. H., Zhang, X. H. and Wang, H.Z. (2004). Adaptable effects of phosphorus stress on different genotypes of faba-bean. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 24(8), 1589-1593.