تبیین پدیدارشناسانه رفتار آب در شکل‌گیری نظام باغ‌سازی بیرجند با استفاده از مدل کیفی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه معماری، واحد بیرجند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

2 استادیار گروه معماری، واحد بیرجند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

3 دانشکده صنایع دستی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

4 استادیار گروه صنایع دستی، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران

چکیده

در طول تاریخ، معماران همواره آب را به درون بناها دعوت کرده­اند. عنصر آب، چنان در ساخت ترکیب بناها وارد شده که عملاً نمی­توان آن را از معماری جدا دانست و بدون آن فضاها بی­جان و خشک جلوه می­کنند. این معنای بلند، نیازمند ارج نهادن، بروز و جلوه­گری در فرهنگ و معماری امروز ما دارد تا غبار کهنگی و تعلق به گذشته از چهره آن زدوده شود؛ اما چگونگی تحقق آن نیازمند تأمل و تحقیق است. افزون بر آن، با توجه به کمبود آب در ایران و به­ویژه در بیرجند، لازم است توجه ویژه و هنرمندانه­ای به این عنصر حیاتی شود و قدر و ارزش آن بیش‌ازپیش برای همگان معرفی شود. هدف از این پژوهش، تبیین رفتار آب در شکل‌گیری نظام باغ­سازی بیرجند با بهره‌گیری از روش کیفی و با رویکرد پدیدارشناسانه و پاسخگویی به این پرسش­ها است: آیا آب در نگاه معماران در نظام باغ­سازی بیرجند از اهمیتی برخوردار بوده است؟ آیا آب به لحاظ ابعاد فرآیندی، عملکردی و محیطی می­تواند مخاطبان را به خیزش و لذت روحی و روانی در نظام باغ­سازی وادار سازد؟ بدین منظور، داده­های مورد نیاز با نمونه‌گیری هدفمند و مصاحبه ژرف با پنج نفر از متخصصان، خبرگان و افراد ماهر در حوزه مورد پژوهش (معماری و میراث فرهنگی) که در نظام باغ­سازی بیرجند تجربه بالای 15 سال داشته و با نظام با باغ­سازی بیرجند آشنایی کامل داشتند، جمع­آوری شد. برای تعیین پایایی پرسشنامه­ها، پیش­آزمون انجام گرفت که مقدار آلفای کرونباخ برای پرسشنامه رفتار آب 82/0 و پرسشنامه نظام باغ­سازی 86/0 محاسبه شد که نشان از پایایی پرسشنامه‌ها دارد. سپس تحلیل داده­ها با استفاده از نرمافزار Maxqda صورت گرفت. نتایج تحلیل داده­ها نشان داد (05/0> P) که نه‌تنها آب در نگاه معماران در نظام باغ­سازی بیرجند از اهمیت برخوردار است بلکه آب به لحاظ ابعاد فرآیندی، عملکردی و محیطی می‌تواند مخاطبان را به خیزش و لذت روحی روانی در نظام باغ­سازی وادار سازد. با توجه به نتایج به‌دست‌آمده، پیشنهاد می­شود که نظام سنتی تأمین و گردش آب در باغ­های تاریخی حفظ شود، کارکردهای آب در باغ شامل منظر کشاورزی احیا شود و سعی بر این نباشد حال که منظر کشاورزی اهمیت گذشته را ندارد، آب کارکردهای غیر اصیلی در باغ­ها پیدا کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Phenomenological Explanation of Water Behavior in the Formation of Birjand Horticultural System Using Qualitative Models

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Shabani 1
  • Reza Mirzaee 2
  • Farhad Khosravi Bizhaem 3
  • Seyed Mohammadreza Khalilnezhad 4
1 PhD Student, Department of Architecture, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran
3 Faculty of Handicrafts, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Handicrafts, Birjand University, Birjand, Iran
چکیده [English]

Throughout history, architects have always invited water into buildings. The element of water has entered into the construction of the building so that it cannot be separated from architecture in practice, and without it, the spaces will look lifeless and dry. This lofty meaning needs to be honored, manifested, and reflected in our culture and architecture today to remove the dust of antiquity and to belong to the past from its face; But achieving it requires reflection and research. In addition, due to the lack of water in Iran and especially in Birjand, it is necessary to pay special and artistic attention to this vital element and introduce its value to everyone more than before. The purpose of this study is to explain the behavior of water in the formation of the Birjand horticultural system using a qualitative method and with a phenomenological approach and answer these questions: Has water been important in the view of architects in the Birjand horticultural system? Can water, in terms of process, functional and environmental dimensions, make the audience rise and enjoy the horticultural system? For this purpose, the required data by purposeful sampling and in-depth interviews with five experts and skilled people in the field of research (architecture and cultural heritage) who have more than 15 years of experience in the Birjand horticultural system was collected. To determine the reliability of the questionnaires, a pre-test was performed. The Cronbach's alpha value for the water behavior questionnaire was 0.82, and the horticulture system questionnaire was 0.86, which indicates the reliability of the questionnaires. Then data analysis was performed using Maxqda software. The results of data analysis showed (P <0.05) that not only water is important in the view of architects in the Birjand horticultural system but water in terms of process, functional and environmental dimensions can lead to the audience's psychological enjoyment of the horticultural system. According to the obtained results, it is suggested that the traditional system of water supply and circulation in historical gardens be preserved, water functions in the garden be restored, including the agricultural landscape, and now that the agricultural landscape is not as important as it used to be, try to find water for its original functions in the gardens.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water and Architecture
  • Water distribution System
  • Water Civilizations
  • Traditional Systems
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