استرهای فتالیک اسید به عنوان آلاینده‌های نوظهور فراگیر در محیط زیست و نقش آن‌ها در تهدید امنیت غذایی و سلامت انسان: یک مطالعه مروری

نوع مقاله : مروری

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

2 گروه علوم و مهندسی صنایع غذایی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

3 گروه محیط زیست، واحد لاهیجان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، لاهیجان، ایران.

چکیده

پلاستی­سایزرها ترکیباتی هستند که به طور گسترده به منظور افزایش نرمی ترکیبات پلاستیکی و مشتقات مربوط به آن استفاده می­شوند. استرهای فتالیک اسید به­عنوان بزرگترین گروه نرم­کننده­های جهان به شمار می­روند و مقدار مصرف این ترکیبات در جهان در حدود 10 میلیون تن در سال بوده که گردش مالی بالغ بر 20 هزار میلیون دلار را دربر می­گیرد. این ترکیبات نیمه­فرار بوده و سرطان­زا، جهش­زا و مختل­کننده غدد درون­ریز می­باشند. در این پژوهش به معرفی انواع استرهای فتالیک اسید و ساختار آن­ها، مسیرهای ورود آن­ها به اکوسیستم­های مختلف و بدن انسان، روش­های اندازه­گیری در نمونه­های محیطی و پژوهش­های انجام شده در سطح جهان و ایران پرداخته شده است. به دلیل پیوند ضعیف بین این ترکیبات با پلاستیک­ها، این آلاینده­ها به­راحتی می­توانند وارد محیط زیست شده و با ورود به زنجیره غذایی انسان سبب بروز بیماری­های زیادی مانند سرطان سینه، تیروئید، بیضه، مشکلات تولید مثلی، چاقی، آسم، قند و .... شوند. با توجه به این ویژگی­ها، استرهای فتالیک اسید در فهرست آلاینده­های­ خطرناک سازمان محیط زیست کشور ایالات متحده آمریکا، چین و اتحادیه اروپا قرار دارند. متاسفانه در این زمینه پژوهش­های بسیار کمی در ایران انجام شده است. پژوهش­های انجام شده در رسوبات تالاب انزلی، آب خلیج چابهار و خاک پائین­دست محل دفن زباله سراوان نشان داد غلظت استرهای فتالیک اسید بویژه دی اتیل هگزیل فتالات (پرکاربردترین نرم­کننده جهان) بسیار بیشتر از آستانه خطر زیست­محیطی این آلاینده­ها در اکوسیستم است. امید است اطلاعات این مقاله مروری به شناخت هرچه بیشتر این ترکیبات و بررسی خطرات این آلاینده برای محیط زیست ایران کمک نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Phthalic Acid Esters as Pervasive Emerging Pollutants in the Environment and Their Role in Threatening Food Security and Human Health: A Review

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shayan Shariati 1
  • Ahmad Ali pourbabaei 1
  • Hossein Ali Alikhani 1
  • Keramat Allah Rezaei 2
  • Fatemeh Shariati 3
1 Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
2 Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
3 Department of Environmental Science, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Plasticizers are compounds that are widely used to increase the softness of plastic compounds and related derivatives.The largest group of emollients in the world are phthalic acid esters. These compounds consumption is about 10 million tons per year in the world, which covers an annual turnover of $ 20000 million. These compounds are semi-volatile and have carcinogenic, mutagenic, and endocrine-disrupting properties. In this study, phthalic acid ester types and structures, entry paths into different ecosystems and the human body, measurement methods in environmental samples, and studies conducted in the world and Iran are introduced. Due to the weak bond between these compounds and plastics, they can enter the environment and the human food chain easily, and cause many diseases such as breast, thyroid, and testicular cancer, reproductive problems, obesity, asthma, diabetes, and etc. Regarding these properties, the phthalic acid esters are concluded in the list of most dangerous pollutants of the U.S.EPA, China, and the European Union. Unfortunately, very little research has been performed in this field in Iran. Research in the sediments of Anzali wetland, Chabahar Bay water, and the soil downstream Saravan landfill have shown that the concentration of phthalic acid esters, especially diethyl hexyl phthalate (the most widely used plasticizer in the world) has gone beyound the environmental risk limit of these pollutants. It is hoped that the information in this review will help to understand these compounds better and investigating their dangers in Iran environment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • cancer
  • Diethyl hexyl phthalate
  • Environmental Pollution
  • Phthalates
  • Plasticizers
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