بررسی میزان آبشویی نیترات از خاک با کاربرد بیوچار باگاس نیشکر و کود کندرها

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی و مدیریت آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 عضو هیئت علمی (دانشیار) مؤسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی؛ سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

یکی از آلاینده­هایی که به طور عمده از فعالیت‌های کشاورزی ناشی می­شود، نیترات است که به آب­های زیرزمینی و سطحی انتقال یافته و سلامت انسان­ها را تهدید می­کند. از منابع ورود نیترات به خاک، کودهای شیمیایی است که در بخش کشاورزی در مقادیر بالا مصرف می­شوند. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی تاثیر افزودن مقادیر مختلف بیوچار حاصل از باگاس نیشکر، در کنار کاربرد کود کندرها ( اوره با پوشش گوگردی)، بر میزان آبشویی نیترات از نیمرخ خاک می­باشد. بدین منظور در آزمایشی با کشت گیاه گوجه­فرنگی، چهار سطح تیمار بیوچار شامل صفر درصد وزنی بیوچار (0B)، یک درصد وزنی (1B)، دو درصد وزنی (2B) و سه درصد وزنی (3B) در خاک سطحی و دو نوع کود اوره معمولی و کود اوره با پوشش گوگردی (SCU) لحاظ شد که در مجموع 8 تیمار را شامل بود که در سه تکرار اجرا شد. کشت محصول در ستون­های خاک زهکش‌دار و به روش آبیاری غرقابی انجام گرفت. میزان نیتروژن نیتراتی (N-NO3) خروجی طی دوره رشد گیاه در 5 مرحله اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش درصد وزنی بیوچار خاک سطحی، میزان آبشویی نیترات از ستون­های خاک در ترکیب سطوح بیوچار 1B، 2B و 3B با کاربرد کود اوره معمولی به ترتیب 2/6، 1/10 و 3/18 درصد، و در کاربرد کود SCU به ترتیب 6/8، 7/22 و 14/24 درصد نسبت به تیمارهای بدون بیوچار کاهش یافت. بیشترین میزان آبشویی نیترات در خاک بدون بیوچار با کاربرد کود اوره معمولی و به میزان متوسط 2307 میلی­گرم، و کمترین مقدار آن در کاربرد بیوچار سه درصد وزنی به همراه کود SCU به مقدار 1659 میلی­گرم، اتفاق افتاد. با توجه به نتایج پژوهش، کاربرد بیوچار حاصل از باگاس نیشکر باعث کاهش آبشویی نیترات از نیمرخ خاک شد که در صورت استفاده از کود SCU به جای کود اوره معمولی، این اثر کاهشی معنی­دار می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Nitrate Leaching from the Soil with the Application of Sugarcane Bagasse Biochar and Slow-release Fertilizer

نویسندگان [English]

  • yashar shahbazi 1
  • Seyed Majid Mirlatifi 1
  • Alireza Hassanoghli 2
1 Department of Water Management and Engineering, Collage of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Scientific Staff Member (Associate Professor), Agricultural Engineering Research Institute; Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Nitrate is one of pollutants which is mainly caused by agricultural activities which contaminates groundwater and surface water and threatens human health. Chemical fertilizers which are used in large quantities in agriculture are one of the sources of nitrate in the soil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the application of different levels of sugarcane bagasse biochar (SBB) and slow-release fertilizer (sulfur-coated urea) on nitrate leaching through a soil profile. A greenhouse experiment with tomato crop grown on a soil mixed with four concentration levels of SBB treatments, including zero percent of soil weight (0B), one percent of soil weight (1B), two percent of soil weight (2B), and three percent of soil weight (3B) and two types of nitrogen fertilizer including conventional urea (CU) and sulfur-coated urea (SCU) fertilizers was performed with three replications. The crop was grown in drained lysimeters and irrigated by surface method. The amount of nitrate was monitored at 5 different times during the tomato growing season. The results showed that nitrate leaching from the lysimeters decreased as the percentage of biochar levels increased. Leaching nitrogen from treatments with biochar levels of 1B, 2B and 3B and with the application of CU fertilizer were 6.2%, 10.1% and 18.3%, respectively and with the application of SCU fertilizer were 8.6%, 22.7% and 24.14%, respectively, less than that of the zero level biochar treatments. The highest and lowest levels of nitrate leaching occurred from lysimeters filled with soil without biochar (0B) and with the application of CU (2307 mg), and from treatment 3B with the application of SCU (1659 mg), respectively. According to the results obtained, application of SBB reduced nitrate leaching from the soil profile and as a result of using SCU fertilizer instead of CU fertilizer, this reduction effect was significant.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biochar
  • Nitrate leaching
  • Sulfur coated urea
  • Slow-release fertilizer
  • Sugarcane Bagasse
Abbruzzini, T. F., Davies, C. A., Toledo, F. H., & Cerri, C. E. P. (2019). Dynamic biochar effects on nitrogen use efficiency, crop yield and soil nitrous oxide emissions during a tropical wheat-growing season. Journal of environmental management252, 109638.
Ahmed, R., Li, Y., Mao, L., Xu, C., Lin, W., Ahmed, S., & Ahmed, W. (2019). Biochar Effects on Mineral Nitrogen Leaching, Moisture Content, and Evapotranspiration after 15N Urea Fertilization for Vegetable Crop. Agronomy, 9(6), 331.
Almaroai, Y. A., & Eissa, M. A. (2020). Effect of biochar on yield and quality of tomato grown on a metal-contaminated soil. Scientia Horticulturae265, 109210.
Castellini, M., Giglio, L., Niedda, M., Palumbo, A. D., & Ventrella, D. (2015). Impact of biochar addition on the physical and hydraulic properties of a clay soil. Soil and Tillage Research, 154, 1-13.
Clough, T.J., Condron, L.M., Kammann, C. and Müller, C. (2013). A review of biochar and soil nitrogen dynamics. Agronomy, 3(2): 275-293.
Fangkum, A. and Reungsang, A. (2011). Biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by elephant dung: Effects of initial pH and substrate concentration. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 36(14): 8687-8696.
Francis G.S., and Haynes R.J. (1991). The leaching and chemical transformation of surface-applied urea under flood irrigation. Fert. Res., (28): 139-146.
Foley, J.A., Defries, R., Asner, G.P., Barford, C., Bonan, G., Carpenter, S.R., Chapin, F.S., Coe, M.T., Daily, G.C. and Gibbs, H.K. (2005). REVIEW global consequences of land use.
Gascho, G. and Snyder, G. (1976). Sulfur-coated Fertilizers for Sugarcane: I. Plant Response to Sulfur-coated Urea 1. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 40(1): 119-122.
Ghorbani, M., Asadi, H., & Abrishamkesh, S. (2019). Effects of rice husk biochar on selected soil properties and nitrate leaching in loamy sand and clay soil. International soil and water conservation research, 7(3), 258-265.
Harris, P. (1999). On charcoal. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 24(4): 301-306.
Jeffery, S., Verheijen, F. G., van der Velde, M., & Bastos, A. C. (2011). A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment144(1), 175-187.
Jeffery, S., Bezemer, T. M., Cornelissen, G., Kuyper, T. W., Lehmann, J., Mommer, L., ... & van Groenigen, J. W. (2015). The way forward in biochar research: targeting trade‐offs between the potential wins. Gcb Bioenergy7(1), 1-13.
Kanthle, A.K., Lenka, N.K., Lenka, S. and Tedia, K. (2016). Biochar impact on nitrate leaching as influenced by native soil organic carbon in an Inceptisol of central India. Soil and Tillage Research, 157: 65-72.
Knowles, O., Robinson, B., Contangelo, A. and Clucas, L. (2011). Biochar for the mitigation of nitrate leaching from soil amended with biosolids. Science of the Total Environment, 409(17): 3206-3210.
Laird, D., Fleming, P., Wang, B., Horton, R. and Karlen, D. (2010). Biochar impact on nutrient leaching from a Midwestern agricultural soil. Geoderma, 158(3-4): 436-442.
Lehmann, J. (2007). Bio‐energy in the black. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5(7): 381-387.
Lehmann, J., JR, J.P.S., Steiner, C., Nehls, T., Zech, W., Glaser, B., (2003). Nutrient availability and leaching in an archaeological anthrosol and a ferralsol of the central amazon basin: fertilizer, manure and charcoal amendments. Plant Soil 249, 343–357.
Li, J.-h., Lv, G.-h., Bai, W.-b., Liu, Q., Zhang, Y.-c. and Song, J.-q. (2016). Modification and use of biochar from wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) for nitrate and phosphate removal from water. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57(10): 4681-4693.
Liang, F., LI, G. T., LIN, Q. M., & ZHAO, X. R. (2014). Crop yield and soil properties in the first 3 years after biochar application to a calcareous soil. Journal of Integrative Agriculture13(3), 525-532.
Liang, B., Lehmann, J., Solomon, D., Kinyangi, J., Grossman, J., O'neill, B., Skjemstad, J.O., Thies, J., Luizão, F.J. and Petersen, J. (2006). Black carbon increases cation exchange capacity in soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70(5): 1719-1730.
Malakouti, M., Bai, B.A., Shahabi, A., Siavashi, K., Vakil, R., Ghaderi, J., Shahabifar, J., Majidi, A., Jafar, N.A. and Dehghani, F. (2008). Comparison of complete and sulfur coated urea fertilizers with pre-plant urea in increasing grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in wheat.
Malakouti, M. (2016). Optimal recommendations for fertilizer use for agricultural products in Iran (3th ed.). Tehran: moballeghan publishing. (in Farsi)
Peyvast, G. (2002) Vegetable production (2th ed.). Tehran: Agricultural Science. (in Farsi)
Robertson, G.P. and Swinton, S.M. (2005). Reconciling agricultural productivity and environmental integrity: a grand challenge for agriculture. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 3(1): 38-46.
Skowroñska, M. and Filipek, T. (2014). Life cycle assessment of fertilizers: a review. International Agrophysics, 28(1).
Smika D.E., Heermanm D.F., Duke H.R., and Bathchelder A.R. (1997). Nitrate-N percolation through irrigated sandy soil as different by water management. Agronomy Journal, 69(4): 623-626.
Sun, H., Lu, H., Chu, L., Shao, H. and Shi, W. (2017). Biochar applied with appropriate rates can reduce N leaching, keep N retention and not increase NH3 volatilization in a coastal saline soil. Science of the Total Environment, 575: 820-825.
Tesoriero A.J., and Voss F.D. (1997). Predicting of elevated nitrate concentration in the Puget Sound Basin: implication for susceptibility and vulnerability. Ground water, 35(6): 1029-1040.
Xu, N., Tan, G., Wang, H. and Gai, X. (2016). Effect of biochar additions to soil on nitrogen leaching, microbial biomass and bacterial community structure. European Journal of Soil Biology, 74: 1-8.
Yao, Y., Gao, B., Zhang, M., Inyang, M. and Zimmerman, A.R. (2012). Effect of biochar amendment on sorption and leaching of nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate in a sandy soil. Chemosphere, 89(11): 1467-1471.
Zareabyaneh, H. and Bayatvarkeshi, M. (2015). Effects of slow-release fertilizers on nitrate leaching, its distribution in soil profile, N-use efficiency, and yield in potato crop. Environmental earth sciences, 74(4): 3385-3393.
Zhu, Y.Y., Tang, W.Z., Jin, X., Shan, B.Q., (2019). Using biochar capping to reduce nitrogen release from sediments in eutrophic lakes. Sci. Total Environ. 646, 93-104.