بررسی مدیریت آب و کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد واجزای عملکرد گیاه کینوا (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) در منطقه باجگاه (استان فارس)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

بخش مهندسی آب و مرکز مطالعات خشکسالی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

امروزه استفاده موثر از منابع محدود آب وخاک برای کاشت گیاه جدید مقاوم به تنش­های محیطی، مانند کینوا، درکشاورزی مورد توجه قرارگرفته­است. به‌ منظور بررسی برهمکنش سطوح مختلف آب آبیاری و کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد و اجزا عملکرد کینوا رقم Titicaca، در اسفند1396 آزمایشی مزرعه­ای به مدت چهار ماه در منطقه باجگاه استان فارس انجام شد. آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار با 12 تیمار اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش، کود نیتروژن درچهار سطح کودی صفر، 125، 250 و 375 کیلوگرم نیتروژن درهکتار وآب آبیاری در سه سطح آبیاری کامل، 75 درصد آبیاری کامل و50 درصد آبیاری کامل بود. پس از آماده­سازی بستر کشت و عملیات خاکورزی، بذر کینوا با تراکم 20 گیاه در مترمربع کشت شد. تیمارهای آبیاری پس از استقرار کامل گیاه و به روش آبیاری کرتی اعمال ­شد. کود نیتروژن، به صورت سرک، در دو مرحله سبزینگی و پرکردن دانه به مزرعه داده شد. کاهش آب آبیاری به میزان 25 درصد، تفاوت معنی داری در عملکرد دانه در سطوح کودی صفر، 125 و250 کیلوگرم نیتروژن درهکتارایجاد نکرد. افزایش سطوح کودی از 250 به kg N ha-1 375 در شرایط کم آبیاری در سطوح 75 و 50 درصد آبیاری کامل (600 و 485mm) باعث تفاوت معنی­دار در عملکرد دانه و ماده خشک کل گیاه کینوا نگردید. به طورکلی تیمار آبیاری قابل توصیه و حد بهینه کود نیتروژن کاربردی در منطقه مورد مطالعه، برای گیاه کینوا با در نظر داشتن عملکرد دانه، ماده خشک کل، شاخص برداشت، وزن هزاردانه و بهره­وری آب، کم آبیاری 75 درصد آبیاری کامل و کود نیتروژن kg N ha-1 250 می­باشد. همچنین با مدیریت آب و کود ذکر شده، حد آستانه شاخص کلروفیل برگ معادل 55 تعیین شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Water and Nitrogen Management on yield and yield components of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in Bajgah (Fars Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Bahrami
  • Rezvan Tallebnejad
  • Ali Reza Sepaskhah
Water Engineering Department and Drought Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Todays in agriculture, the effective use of limited soil and water resources and cultivation of new crops, resistant to environmental challenges, such as quinoa have been considered. In order to investigate the interaction effect of different levels of irrigation water and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and yield components of quinoa (cv. Titicaca), a field experiment was conducted on March 2017 during four months at Shiraz University in the Bajgah area of Fars province. A factorial experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with twelve treatments and three replications. Experimental Factors include: Nitrogen (N) fertilizer treatments in four levels of zero, 125, 250, 375 kg N ha-1 and the irrigation water strategies in three levels of full irrigation (FI), 75% and 50% full irrigation (0.75FI and 0.5FI. After tillage operations, quinoa seeds planted with a density of 20 plants per square meter. After plant establishment, irrigation treatments applied with basin irrigation method. Nitrogen fertilizer was given to the field in two steps of vegetation and grain filling.). Reduction Irrigation level up to 25% had no significant effect on seed yield in zero, 125 to 250 kg N ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer application levels. Increasing nitrogen fertilizer application levels from 250 to 375 kg N ha-1 under deficit irrigation (0.75FI and 0.5FI) did not make a significant difference in grain yield and the total dry matter of quinoa. Generally, the recommended irrigation regime and optimum nitrogen fertilizer application rate in the study area (Bajgah) for quinoa, based on the yield, total dry matter, harvest index, 1000-seed weight, water productivity were 0.75FI and 250 kg N ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer. Moreover, the chlorophyll index (SPAD) threshold value was 55 for the optimum nitrogen fertilizer application rate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Halophyte
  • Leaf chlorophyll
  • Deficit irrigation
  • Water Productivity
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