ارزیابی آلودگی اجزای ذرات خاک سطحی به فلزات سنگین در کاربری‌های مختلف حوضه آبخیز باغان استان بوشهر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد،شهرکرد، ایران

2 گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران

چکیده

حوضه­های آبخیز منابع تأمین آب آشامیدنی شهرها و روستاها هستند و آلودگی آنها به عناصر سنگین، تهدید کننده سلامتی ساکنین حوضه و افرادی است که از آب و محصولات کشاورزی آنها استفاده می­کنند. با توجه به اهمیت حوضه آبخیز باغان در استان بوشهر، این پژوهش با هدف ارزیابی آلودگی خاک سطحی این حوضه به برخی فلزات سنگین (Cd، Mn، Ni، Pb، Zn، Cu و Fe) در کلاس­های مختلف اندازه­ای ذرات خاک (کمتر از 2000  و 63  میکرون) کاربری­های مختلف ( مرتع، زراعی و باغی) در این حوضه انجام گرفت. مکان 120 نمونه مرکب خاک سطحی (0-20 سانتی­متر) در حوضه با استفاده از تکنیک ابرمکعب لاتین تعیین شد. پس از تیمارهای اولیه عناصر سنگین به روش اسپوزیتو عصاره­گیری و به کمک دستگاه جذب اتمی اندازه‌گیری شدند و با استفاده از شاخص­های ژئوشیمیایی فاکتور آلودگی (Cantamination Factor, CF)، زمین انباشت (Index of geo-accumulation, Igeo) و بار آلودگی (Pollution Load Index, PLI) مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. افزایش معنی­دار غلظت کل Cu، Cd و Fe با کوچکتر شدن اندازه ذرات خاک در کاربری­های مختلف اراضی مشاهده شد. روند میزان CF در همه کاربری­ها در کلاس کمتر از 2000 میکرون Cd>Mn>Pb>Ni>Cu>Zn>Fe و در کمتر از 63 میکرون به ترتیب Cd>Mn>Cu>Ni>Pb>Zn>Fe می­باشد. ارزیابی آلودگی با استفاده از شاخص CF وضعیت فعلی خاک را در کاربری باغ نسبت به Cd، آلودگی قابل توجه و برای سایر فلزات، آلودگی متوسط نشان می­دهد. مقادیر مثبت و معنی­دار شاخص زمین انباشت (Igeo)  برای فلزات   Cdو Mn در هر دو کلاس اندازه ذرات در همه کاربری­ها مشاهده شد. در مجموع نتایج این پژوهش قرارگیری ترجیحی غلظت برخی فلزات در اندازه­ ذرات ریزتر خاک را مورد تأیید قرار می­دهد. همچنین شواهد بیانگر تأثیر عوامل انسانی بر آلودگی خاک سطحی منطقه به فلزات کادمیوم و منگنز می­باشد. نتایج این تحقیق می­تواند اطلاعات ارزشمندی برای ارزیابی ریسک خطر آلودگی خاک­های سطحی منطقه فراهم نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination of Soil Particle Size Fractions in Different Land Uses of Baghan Watershed, Bushehr province, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Somayeh dehghani 1
  • mehdi naderi 1
  • jahangard mohammadi 2
  • Ahmad Karimi 2
1 Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Shahrekord,shahrekord, Iran
2 Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Shahrekord,shahrekord, Iran
چکیده [English]

Watersheds are the sources of drinking water for cities and villages, and their pollution with heavy elements threatens the health of the inhabitants who use their water and agricultural products. Considering the importance of Baghan watershed in Bushehr province, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the contamination of soil particle size fractions (<63 and <2000 µm) by some heavy metals (Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Fe) in three major land uses (range lands, croplands and orchards). Location of 120 surficial composite soil samples (0-20 cm) were determined using the Latin Hypercube technique on the topographical map. After pretreatment of soil samples, heavy metals were extracted by the Sposito method and measured using an atomic absorption spectrometry and geochemical pollution indicators including contamination factor (CF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and the pollution load index (PLI) were calculated. A significant increase in the concentration of Cu, Cd, and Fe has been observed by decreasing the particle size in different land uses. The contamination factor (CF) for particle sizes <2000 and <63 were ordered as Cd>Mn>Pb>Ni>Cu>Zn>Fe and Cd>Mn>Cu>Ni>Pb>Zn>Fe, respectively. The CF index indicates that the orchard soils for Cd were considerably polluted and for other metals moderatly polluted. Positive and significant amount of geo-accumulation index (Igeo) for Cd and Mn was observed for both soil particle classes in all land uses. Overall, the results of this study confirmed concentration of some heavy metals in smaller particles size. Comparing contaminants concentration of Cd and Mn in croplands and orchards soils with the range lands soils indicated anthropogenic effects on soil pollution. The results revealed risk of heavy metals in the watershed and necessity of reconsidering management policies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil contamination
  • Bagan watershed
  • Heavy metals
  • Contamination Factor
  • Geo-accumulation index
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