بهبود صفات پایداری و کندرهایی کود پلت کمپوست پسماندهای زیستی-کشاورزی با ‌کمک پوشش‌ زیست‌تجزیه‌پذیر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی مکانیک بیوسیستم، گروه مهندسی فنی کشاورزی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 گروه مهندسی فنی کشاورزی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی مکانیک بیوسیستم، گروه مهندسی فنی کشاورزی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

4 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی مکانیک بیوسیستم، گروه مهندسی فنی کشاورزی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

5 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی آبیاری و زهکشی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

10.22059/ijswr.2021.321411.668927

چکیده

امروزه استفاده از مواد پوششی زیست‌تجزیه­پذیر به‌دلیل بهبود تطابق آزادسازی مواد مغذی با نیاز غذایی گیاه و کاهش نگرانی‌های زیست‌محیطی به یک راه‌کار مؤثر برای تولید کودهای پلت با پایه زیستی تبدیل شده است. در این پژوهش، کمپوست سه پسماند زیستی شامل کود مرغی (40 درصد)، کود گاوی (30 درصد) و بقایای گیاهی (30 درصد) با رطوبت 40 درصد وزنی مخلوط و با دستگاه اکسترودر پیچی پلت‌ شدند. اثر چهار ماده پوشش­دهنده زیست‌تجزیه‌پذیر (هیومیک اسید، روغن کانولا، نشاسته ذرت و نانوسیلیس) و سه روش پوشش­دهی (غوطه‌وری، پاششی و خلأ) بر پنج صفت پایداری پلت کمپوست شامل زمان وارفتگی، جذب آب، جذب رطوبت و زاویه تماس قطره آب از طریق آزمایش چندعاملی در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار بررسی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که کود پلت کمپوست پوشش­دهی شده به روش خلأ-کانولا با زمان وارفتگی (1735 دقیقه)، جذب آب (6/57 درصد)، جذب رطوبت (3/4 درصد) و زاویه تماس (69 درجه) به­عنوان نمونه برتر این پژوهش انتخاب شد. این روش پوشش‌دهی باعث افزایش36 برابری و کاهش 7/3، 7 و 6/1 برابری به­ترتیب در زمان وارفتگی، جذب آب، جذب رطوبت و زاویه تماس نسبت به نمونه بدون پوشش­دهی شد. نرخ آزادسازی نیتروژن در محیط آب برای پلت کمپوست پوشش‌دهی شده در زمان وارفتگی 25 درصد بود. همچنین، 75 درصد نیتروژن به­مدت 55 روز در محیط خاک آزادسازی شد که نرخ آزادسازی را به­مدت 45 روز نسبت به نمونه بدون پوشش­دهی بهبود بخشید. از نتایج این پژوهش می­توان نتیجه گرفت که کود پلت کمپوست پوشش­دهی شده به روش خلأ-کانولا با بهبود صفات پایداری، ماندگاری در آب و کاهش نرخ آزادسازی نیتروژن، می­تواند عناصر غذایی را برای مدت زمان طولانی‌تری در اختیار گیاه قرار دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Improving Sustainability and Slow-Release Property of Pelletized Agro-Biowaste Compost Fertilizer Assisted by Biodegradable Coating

نویسندگان [English]

  • Marzieh Ghorbani 1
  • Mohammad Hossein Kianmehr 2
  • Ehsan Sarlaki 3
  • Rasoul Ahrari 4
  • Behzad Azadegan 5
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agrotechnology, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Agrotechnology, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agrotechnology, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
4 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Agrotechnology, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
5 Department of Irrigation and Drainage, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Today, the use of biodegradable coatings has become an effective solution for pelletized agro-biowaste fertilizers due to the synchronizing of the nutrient release according to the plant requirements and reducing the environmental issues. In this study, three agro-biowaste compost including poultry manure (40%), cattle manure (30%), and agricultural biomass (30%) were mixed at the 40% moisture content, and then the pelletization process was carried out using the screw extruder. A factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was developed for assessing the effect of four biodegradable coating materials (humic acid, canola oil, corn starch, and nano-silica) and three coating methods (dip coating, spray coating, vacuum coating) on sustainability attributes of coated compost pellets such as pellet disintegration time, water absorption, humidity absorption, and water contact angle. The results showed that the canola oil – vacuum method applied for coated compost pellets with disintegration time (1735 min), water absorption (57.6%), humidity absorption (4.3%), and water contact angle (69°) was the best treatment. This coating method showed a 36-fold increase in disintegration time and a 3.7, 7, and 1.6-fold decrease in water absorption, humidity absorption, and water contact angle, respectively as compared with uncoated compost pellets. The nitrogen release rate of the coated compost pellets showed that the amount of total nitrogen at disintegration time was 25%. Also, 75% of nitrogen was released into the soil during 55 days, which confirmed experimental results and improved the nitrogen release rate by 45 days as compared with uncoated compost pellets. Overall, from the results of this study, it can be concluded that pelletized compost fertilizer which was coated by canola oil-vacuum method, shown a high resistance to water, enhanced sustainability and reduced nitrogen-release rate property as it could supply nutrient to the plant for a longer period.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • sustainability
  • Pelletized agro-biowaste compost fertilizer
  • Biodegradable coating
  • Slow-release nitrogen
  • Vacuum coating
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