برآورد بیلان منابع آب زیرزمینی در یک آبخوان با برداشت بی‌رویه واقع در اقلیم خشک ایران (بخش دوم: محاسبات مؤلفه‌های مختلف بیلان آب)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه مهندسی و مدیریت آب، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 پژوهشگر، پژوهشکده مهندسی و مدیریت آب، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 پژوهشگر، دانشگاه صنعتی شریف، تهران، ایران

10.22059/ijswr.2021.321263.668924

چکیده

منابع آب زیرزمینی، مهم‌ترین منبع تأمین کننده آب مورد نیاز مصارف گوناگون در محدوده مطالعاتی رفسنجان است. برداشت بی‌رویه از این منابع منجر به افت مداوم سطح آب زیرزمینی در سه دهه اخیر شده است. امکان برداشت پایدار از این منابع در سالیان آینده مستلزم مدیریت صحیح برداشت آب زیرزمینی است. بر اساس برآورد بیلان منابع آب زیرزمینی انجام شده در محدوده منطبق با آبخوان رفسنجان به مساحت 5/4236 کیلومترمربع، در سال‌های 1388 تا 1395، مقدار کاهش ذخیره آب زیرزمینی برابر 3/166 میلیون مترمکعب در سال برآورد گردیده که منجر به افت متوسط سالانه 58 سانتی‌متری آب زیرزمینی شده است. برآورد مکانی تبخیر و تعرق با بهره‌گیری از داده‌های سنجش از دور و روش بیلان انرژی ساده سازی شده SSEB در این مطالعه، امکان محاسبه مؤلفه تغذیه آب زیرزمینی را داده و این رویکرد از برآوردهای تقریبی این مؤلفه با استفاده از ضرایب توصیه شده برای نفوذ از بارش یا ضرایب آب برگشتی از مصارف مختلف جلوگیری می‌نماید. بر این اساس، در دوره زمانی مورد نظر، مقدار تبخیر و تعرق در حدود 581 میلیون مترمکعب برآورد شده که حدود 35 الی 40 درصد آن را تبخیر از بارش و مابقی را تبخیر و تعرق آبیاری (عمدتاً از باغات پسته) تشکیل می‌دهد. در سال‌های مورد مطالعه، بطور متوسط 1157 هکتار از اراضی منطقه را باغات پسته تشکیل می‌دهد که حدود 3071 مترمکعب بر هکتار مصرف آب را داشته و تا حدودی گویای شرایط کم‌آبیاری و تنش آبی برای درخت پسته است. همچنین بررسی شرایط حاکم، گویای بحرانی بودن وضعیت آبخوان و لزوم توجه به مدیریت صحیح بهره‌برداری از آب‌های زیرزمینی را مشخص می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Groundwater Budget Estimation of an Over-Exploited Aquifer Located in the Arid Climate of Iran (Part Two: Calculation of Different Water Budget Components)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamed Ketabchi 1
  • Davood Mahmoodzadeh 2
  • Ehsan Jalilvand 3
1 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Water Engineering and Management, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Researcher, Research Institute of Water Engineering and Management, Tarbiat Modares Univ., Tehran, Iran
3 Researcher, Sharif Univ. of Technology, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Groundwater resources are the most important sources of water supply for various uses in the Rafsanjan study area. Over-exploitation of these resources has resulted in a continuous groundwater level depletion in the last three decades. The possibility of sustainable exploitation of these resources in the coming years requires appropriate groundwater use management. Based on the groundwater budget estimation for the Rafsanjan aquifer with​ an area of ​4236.5 km2 in the period from 2009 to 2016, the changes in groundwater storage are estimated to be -166.3 million cubic meters per year, which has led to a mean annual groundwater level depletion of 58 centimeters. Spatial estimation of evapotranspiration using the remote sensing data and simplified energy balance method of SSEB in this study, allows the calculation of groundwater recharge component while this approach stops the approximate estimates of this component by recommended coefficients for precipitation infiltration or return water from different uses. During this period, the value of evapotranspiration is estimated to be 581 million cubic meters, of which about 35 to 40 percent is evaporation from precipitation and the rest is evaporation and transpiration of irrigation (mainly from pistachio orchards). In the studied years, an average of 1157 hectares of land in the region is pistachio orchards, which has an average of 3071 cubic meters per hectare, water consumption, which indicates the conditions of low irrigation and water stress for pistachio orchards. Also, the assessments on the dominant conditions show that the condition of the aquifer is critical and indicates the need to attend to the appropriate management of groundwater use.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rafsanjan aquifer
  • remote sensing
  • Evapotranspiration
  • Groundwater resources management
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