Ali, M., Sterk, G., Seeger, M. and Stroosnijder, L. (2012). Effect of flow discharge and median grain size on mean flow velocity under overland flow. J. Hydrol, 452–453, 150–160.
Asadi, H., Moussavi, A., Ghadiri, H. and Rose, C. W. (2011). Flow-driven soil erosion processes and the size selectivity of sediment. J. Hydrol, 406, 73–81.
Bagnold, R. A. (1966). An approach to the sediment transport problem for general physics. In U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 422-I; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, USA.
Bahrami, A., Emadodin, I., Ranjbar Atashi, M. and Bork, H. R. (2010). Land-use change and soil degradation: A case study, North of Iran. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am, 4, 600–605.
Carter, M.R. and Gregorich. (2006) Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis (2 th ed.). Canadian Society of Soil Science.
Foster, G. R. (1982). Modeling the erosion process. In Hydrologic Modeling of Small Watersheds; Haan, C.T., Ed.; ASAE: St. Joseph, MI, USA, pp. 296–380.
Geng, R., Zhang, G. H., Ma, Q. H. and Wang, L. J. (2017). Soil resistance to runo_ on steep croplands in Eastern China. Catena, 152, 18–28.
Govers, G., Everaert, W., Poesen, J., Rauws, G., De Ploey, J. and Lautridou, J. P. (1990). A long flume study of the dynamic factors affecting the resistance of a loamy soil to concentrated flow erosion. Earth Surf. Process. Landf, 15, 313–328.
Klute, A. (1986). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. Soil Science Society of America, Wisconsin, USA.
Knapen, A., Poesen, J., Govers, G., Gyssels, G. and Nachtergaele, J. (2007). Resistance of soils to concentrated flow erosion: A review. Earth Sci. Rev, 80, 75–109.
Li, M., Hai, X., Hong, H., Shao, Y., Peng, D., Xu, W., Yang, Y., Zheng, Y. and Xia, Z. (2019). Modelling soil detachment by overland flow for the soil in the Tibet Plateau of China. Scientific Reports volume,9, 8063.
Liu, J., Zhou, Z. and Zhang, X. J. (2019). Impacts of sediment load and size on rill detachment under low flow discharge. Journal of Hydrology, 570, 719–725.
Merten, G. H., Nearing, M. A. and Borges, A. L. O. (2001). Effect of sediment load on soil detachment and deposition in rills. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, 65 (3), 861–868.
Meteorological organization of Iran. (2009). Climate data of synoptic station, Retrieved December 3, 2014,fromhttp://www.irimo.ir/farsi/amar/map/province/gilan.asp. (In Farsi).
Nearing, M. A., Bradford, J. M. and Parker, S. C. (1991). Soil detachment by shallow flow at low slopes. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, 55, 339–344.
Nearing, M. A. and Parker, S. C. (1994). Detachment of soil by flowing water under turbulent and laminar conditions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, 58, 1612–1614.
Parhizgar, M., Asadi, H. and Moussavi, S. A. (2018). Effect of plot scale on runoff under natural rainfall (Case study; Saravan region, Rasht). Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 48, 1133-1144. (In Farsi)
Parhizkar, M., Shabanpour, M., Khaledian, M., Cerdà, A., Rose, C. W., Asadi, H., Lucas-Borja, M. E. and Zema, D. A. (2020a). Assessing and modeling soil detachment capacity by overland flow in forest and woodland of Northern Iran. Forests, 11, 65.
Parhizkar, M., Shabanpour, M., Zema, D. A. and Lucas-Borja, M. E. (2020b). Rill erosion and soil quality in forest and deforested ecosystems with different morphological characteristics. Resources, 9, 129; doi: 10.3390/resources9110129.
Polyakov, V. O. and Nearing, M. A. (2003). Sediment transport in rill flow under deposition and detachment conditions. Catena, 51, 33–43.
Raei, B., Asadi, H., Moussavi, A. and Ghadiri, H. (2015). A study of initial motion of soil aggregates in comparison with sand particles of various sizes. Catena, 127, 279–286.
Soil and Water Research Institute. (1998). moisture regimes Map of Iran soils. Agricultural Research Service, Ministry of Agriculture Jihad, Retrieved December 3, 2014,fromhttp://www.swir.ir/. (In Farsi).
Wang, B., Zhang, G. H., Shi, Y. Y. and Zhang, X. C. (2014). Soil detachment by overland flow under different vegetation restoration models in the Loess Plateau of China. Catena, 116, 51–59.
Wang, B., Zhang, G. H., Shi, Y. Y., Zhang, X. C., Ren, Z. P. and Zhu, L. J. (2013). Effect of natural restoration time of abandoned farmland on soil detachment by overland flow in the Loess Plateau of China. Earth Surf. Process. Landf, 38, 1725–1734.
Wang, D. D., Wang, Z L., Shen, N. and Chen, H. (2016). Modeling soil detachment capacity by rill flow using hydraulic parameters. J. Hydrol, 535, 473–479.
Wang, J., Feng, S., Ni, S., Wen, H., Cai, C. and Guo, Z. (2019). Soil detachment by overland flow on hillslopes with permanent gullies in the Granite area of southeast China. Catena, 183, 104235.
Wang, J. G., Li, Z. X., Cai, C. F., Yang, W., Ma, R. M. and Zhang, G. B. (2012). Predicting physical equations of soil detachment by simulated concentrated flow in Ultisols (subtropical China). Earth Surf. Process. Landf, 37, 633–641.
Wang, Z. and Larsen, P. (1994). Turbulent structure of water and clay suspension with bed load. J. Hydraul. Eng, 120, 577–600.
Xiao, H., Liu, G., Liu, P. L., Zheng, F. L., Zhang, J. Q. and Hu, F. N. (2017). Response of soil detachment rate to the hydraulic parameters of concentrated flow on steep loessial slopes on the loess plateau of China. Hydrol. Process, 31, 2613–2621.
Yang, C. T. (1972). Unit stream power and sediment transport. J. Hydrol. Div. ASCE, 98, 1805–1826.
Zhang, G. H., Liu, B. Y., Liu, G. B., He, X. W. and Nearing, M. A. (2003). Detachment of undisturbed soil by shallow flow. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, 67, 713–719.
Zhang, G. H., Liu, G. B., Tang, K. M. and Zhang, X. C. (2008). Flow detachment of soils under different land uses in the Loess Plateau of China. Trans. ASABE, 51, 883–890.