سیلیسیم‌کارایی ارقام مختلف ذرت در یک خاک آهکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران کرج ایران

2 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران

3 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، ایران

4 موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب- سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

چکیده

عنصرکارایی از مهم­ترین ویژگی­های ارقام مختلف گیاهی برای مدیریت تغذیه و مصرف کود در گیاهان است. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی سیلیسیم­کارایی ارقام مختلف ذرت در یک خاک آهکی تحت شرایط گلخانه‎ای طراحی و اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل پنج رقم ذرت (سینگل­­کراس­های 400 (ksc400)، 410 (ksc410)، 704 (ksc704)، 705 (ksc705)، 706 (ksc706)) و دو سطح سیلیسیم (صفر و 100 میلی­گرم سیلیسیم بر کیلوگرم خاک از منبع سیلیکات پتاسیم) بود، که ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت آزﻣﺎﯾﺶ ﻓﺎﮐﺘﻮرﯾﻞ ﺑﺮ ﭘﺎﯾﻪ ﻃﺮح ﮐﺎﻣﻼً ﺗﺼﺎدﻓﯽ اجرا گردید. پس از گذشت هشت هفته از دوره رویشی، گیاهان برداشت و فاکتورهایی نظیر وزن خشک اندام هوایی و ریشه، سطح برگ، حجم و سطح ریشه و مقدار جذب سیلیسیم گیاه اندازه­گیری شد. شاخص­های عنصرکارایی شامل کارایی جذب و مصرف سیلیسیم ارقام مختلف محاسبه گردید. در بین ارقام تیمار ksc706 با عملکرد  g54/14 و وزن ریشه  g7/6 و سطح برگ mm2 173700 و سطح ریشه mm2 185185 از لحاظ خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی بهترین نتایج را داشت و رقم ksc410 نیز با عملکرد  g03/10 و وزن ریشه g 25/5 و سطح برگ mm2147900 و سطح ریشه mm2 136284 کمترین خصوصیات مطلوب را نسبت به تیمار شاهد نشان داد. افزایش عملکرد ارقام نسبت به تیمار شاهد به صورت: ksc400 (7/20%)، ksc706 (8/17%)، ksc410 (2/9%)، ksc704 (9/8%) و ksc705 (8/4%) بود. بیشترین کارایی جذب سیلیسیم در رقم ksc706 (7/85%) و کمترین آن در ksc704 (9/58%)، و بیشترین کارایی مصرف سیلیسیم در ksc705 (52/12%) و کمترین در  ksc400 (44/5%) بود. با توجه به افزایش سطح  سیستم ریشه­ای در تیمار حاوی سیلیسیم نسبت به شاهد، و اثرات سیلیسیم بر جذب و انتقال بیشتر عناصر غذایی از خاک به اندام هوایی، افزایش عملکرد گیاه مشهود است. بر­این­اساس، توصیه می‎شود توسعه کاشت گیاهان عنصر­کارا با هدف مدیریت مصرف نهاده­ها، حاصل­خیزی خاک و اهداف کشاورزی پایدار مورد توجه قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Silicon Efficiency in Different zea maise Cultivars in a Calcareous Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Parviznia 1
  • Babak Motesharezadeh 2
  • Hossein Mirseyed Hosseini 3
  • Seyed Majid Mousavi 4
1 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering & Technology, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Soil Science Department, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering & Technology, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization
چکیده [English]

Element efficiency is one of the most important characteristics of different plant cultivars for managing nutrition and fertilizer application in plants. This study was carried out to investigate the efficiency of silicon in different maize cultivars in a calcareous soil under greenhouse conditions. Treatments included five maize cultivars (single crosses 400 (ksc400), 410 (ksc410), 704 (ksc704), 705 (ksc705), 706 (ksc706)) and two silicon levels (0 and 100 mg silicon in 1 kg soil from potassium silicate source), which was performed in a factorial arrangement based on a completely randomized design. After eight weeks of vegetative period, plants harvested and factors such as shoot and root dry weight, leaf area, root volume and surface area and plant silicon uptake were measured. Efficiency element indices including adsorption and consumption efficiency of silicon and silicon efficiency of different cultivars were calculated. Among cultivars, ksc706 with 14.54 g yield, root weight of 6.7 g, leaf area of 173700 mm2 and root area of 185185 mm2 had the best results in terms of morphological characteristics and ksc410 cultivar with yield of 10.03 g, root weight of 5.25 g, leaf area of ​​2147900 mm2 and root area of ​​136284 mm2 showed the lowest desirable characteristics, compared to the control treatment. Yield increase of cultivars compared to the control treatment were: ksc400 (20.7%), ksc706 (17.8%), ksc410 (9.2%), ksc704 (8.9%) and ksc705 (4.8%). The highest silicon uptake efficiency was in ksc706 cultivar (85.7%) and the lowest in ksc704 (58.9%), and the highest silicon consumption efficiency was in ksc705 (12.52%) and the lowest in ksc400 (5.44%). With regard of increasing the area of root system in the treatment containing silicon compared to the control, and the effects of silicon on the uptake and transfer of more nutrients from the soil to the shoots, an increase in plant yield is evident. Accordingly, it is suggested to consider the development of planting the effective element plants with the aim of managing input consumption, soil fertility and sustainable agricultural goals.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Silicon
  • Efficient silicon
  • absorption
  • Absorption Efficiency
  • Maize cultivars
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