جداسازی تبخیر و تعرق در کشت ذرت و بررسی پاسخ آن‌ها به سطوح مختلف آبیاری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی(ره)، قزوین، ایران.

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی پاسخ اجزای تبخیر-تعرق گیاه ذرت به سطوح مختلف تنش آبی بود که به‌صورت طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی انجام شد. تیمارها شامل آبیاری در چهار سطح (I0)100، (I1)80، (I2)60 و (I3)40 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه بود. تبخیر-تعرق روزانه گیاه بر اساس بیلان آب خاک در مینی‌لایسیمتر اندازه‌گیری شد. برای جداسازی مقادیر اجزای تبخیر و تعرق، از مینی‌لایسیمترهایی با و بدون پوشش مالچ در سطح خاک استفاده شد. در کل دوره رشد، مقادیر تبخیر-تعرق، تعرق و تبخیر به‌ترتیب برابر با 5/424، 3/267 و 2/157 میلی‌متر (در تیمارI0)، 8/405، 4/245 و 4/160 میلی‌متر (در تیمارI1)، 5/360، 4/194 و 1/166 میلی‌متر (در تیمارI2) و 7/303، 5/125 و 2/178 میلی‌متر (در تیمارI3) برآورد شد. نتایج نشان داد از سطح آبیاری I0 تا I3، مقادیر تبخیر-تعرق و تعرق به‌ترتیب 4/28 و 53 درصد کاهش و مقدار تبخیر، 4/13 درصد افزایش یافت. در شرایط تنش آبی، سهم تعرق و تبخیر در پارامتر تبخیر-تعرق، به‌ترتیب 35 درصد کاهش و 35 درصد افزایش داشت. بیشترین مقدار تعرق در دوره‌ توسعه و بیشترین مقدار تبخیر در دوره‌های اولیه و پایانی رشد اتفاق افتاد. اما بالاترین پاسخ تعرق و تبخیر به تنش آبی در دوره میانی رشد اتفاق افتاد که به‌ترتیب همراه با 69 درصد کاهش و 253 درصد افزایش بود. وجود مراحل حساس مانند گل‌دهی و بلال‌دهی ذرت در دوره‌ میانی رشد باعث شد که تنش آبی بیشترین اثر خود را داشته باشد. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد در مقادیری از کم‌آبیاری که صرفاً سطح خاک مرطوب نگه‌داشته می‌شود، علاوه بر کاهش تعرق، افزایش سهم تبخیر نیز وجود دارد. از این‌رو پوشاندن سطح خاک و اعمال حد مناسب تنش آبی در مدیریت کم‌آبیاری، از عوامل مؤثر بر افزایش راندمان مصرف آب توسط گیاه خواهد بود.             

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Separation the Evaporation and Transpiration in Maize Cultivation and Investigation of Their Response to Different Irrigation Levels

نویسنده [English]

  • reza saeidi
Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this research was to investigate the response of evapotranspiration components of maize to different levels of water stress. This research was done as a completely randomized design. Treatments were irrigation at four levels; 100(I0), 80(I1), 60(I2) and 40(I3) percent of the crop water requirement. Daily crop evapotranspiration was measured based on soil water balance in a mini-lysimeter. Mini-lysimeters with and without mulch covering on the soil surface were used to separate the amounts of evapotranspiration components. The amounts of evapotranspiration components (ET, T and E) during the growing period were measured to be 424.5, 267.3 and 157.2 mm (in I0), 405.8, 245.4 and 160.4 mm (in I1), 360.5, 194.4 and 166.1 mm (in I2) and 303.7, 125.5 and 178.2 mm (in I3) respectively. The results showed that from I0 to I3, the amounts of ET and T decreased to 28.4% and 53% respectively, and the E amount increased to 13.4%. Therefore, in water stress conditions, the T portion was decreased to 35% and the E portion increased to 35%. The most amount of T occurred in the developmental period and the most amount of E occurred in the initial and final growth stages. But the highest response of transpiration and evaporation to water stress occurred in the middle period, in which transpiration decreased to 69% and evaporation increased to 253%. The existence of sensitive stages in the middle period of growth caused water stress to be most effective. The results indicated a reduction in transpiration and an increasing in evaporation in deficit irrigation conditions. Therefore, covering the soil surface and applying the suitable level of water stress in irrigation management will be effective factors for increasing the water use efficiency.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Irrigation management
  • Stress coefficient
  • water stress
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