ارزیابی شاخص‌های کیفی خاک در رویشگاه‌های جنگلی تخریب و تبدیل شده به مرتع در غرب مازندران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 علوم و مهندسی مرتع، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 گروه مرتعداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 گروه مرتعداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.

چکیده

تخریب رویشگاه­های جنگلی و تغییر پوشش اراضی می­تواند اثرات برجسته­ای در تغییرپذیری شاخص­های کیفی خاک داشته باشد. در پژوهش حاضر، مشخصه­های مختلف خاک در رویشگاه جنگلی (تقریباً دست­نخورده) با غالبیتZelkova carpinifolia، پوشش مرتعی با غالبیت Festuca ovina و تک درختانی از Zelkova carpinifolia و Ulmus minor ، پوشش مرتعی با غالبیت Dactylis glomerata و Thymus transcaspicus و پوشش مرتعی با غالبیت Stachys byzantina ، در منطقه زانوس بخش کجور استان مازندران، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور، از هر یک از پوشش­های اراضی تعداد 36 نمونه خاک (شامل 12 نمونه در فصول بهار، تابستان و پاییز) از عمق 10-0 سانتی­متری برداشت و به آزمایشگاه انتقال داده شد. نتایج حاکی از تغییرپذیری غالب ویژگی­های مورد مطالعه خاک در فصول مختلف سال تحت انواع پوشش­های اراضی می­باشند. بر مبنای تجزیه به مولفه­های اصلی (PCA)، مقادیر بالاتر رس، ماکرو و میکروخاکدانه، واکنش (pH)، نیتروژن کل، مقدار نیتروژن در ماکرو و میکروخاکدانه­های خاک منجربه افزایش فعالیت­های بیوشیمیایی و میکروبی (آمونیوم، نیترات، سهم میکروبی کربن، معدنی­شدن نیتروژن) خاک تحت پوشش اراضی Zelkova و Festuca شده است. در حالی که پوشش­های اراضی Stachys و Dactylis با دارا بودن مقادیر بزرگتر شن و مقدار کربن در ماکرو و میکروخاکدانه­های خاک، دارای کمترین فعالیت­های بیوشیمیایی و میکروبی خاک بوده­اند. با توجه به نتایج این پژوهش می­توان اذعان داشت، که حضور پوشش­های درختی (آزاد و اوجا) در رویشگاه­ها می­تواند شرایط مناسب­تر و بازدهی بیشتری برای عملکرد خاک فراهم نماید، که این موضوع می­تواند جهت احیای اراضی تخریب­یافته مورد توجه مدیران قرار گیرد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Soil Quality Indicators in Degraded and Converted Forest Habitats to Rangeland in Western Mazandaran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Atefeh Shah Piri 1
  • Yahya Kooch 2
  • Ghasem Ali Dianati Tilaki 3
1 Range Management, Faculty of Natuar Resources, Tarbiat Modares University
2 Range Management, Faculty of Natuar Resources, Tarbiat Modares University.
3 Range Management, Faculty of Natuar Resources, Tarbiat Modares University.
چکیده [English]

Degradation of forest habitats and change of land cover can have significant effects on the variability of soil quality indicators. In the present study, different soil characteristics in forest habitat (almost intact) dominated by Zelkova carpinifolia, rangeland cover dominated by Festuca ovina and single trees of Zelkova carpinifolia and Ulmus minor, rangeland cover dominated by Dactylis glomerata and Thymus transcaspicus and rangeland cover dominated by Stachys byzantina in Zanus region of Kojoor district of Mazandaran province were examined. For this purpose, 36 soil samples (including 12 samples at spring, summer and autumn) were taken from each land cover from a depth of 0-10 cm and transferred to the laboratory. The results indicating the variability of most of the studied soil characteristics in different seasons of the year under different land covers. Based on the principal component analysis (PCA), higher amounts of clay, macro and micro aggregate, pH, total nitrogen, nitrogen in macro and micro aggregate have lead to increasing soil biochemical and microbial activities (i.e. ammonium, nitrate, carbon microbial ratio and nitrogen mineralization) under Zelkova and Festuca covers. While Stachys and Dactylis cover with higher amounts of sand, carbon in macro and micro-aggregate had the lowest soil biochemical and microbial activities. According to the results of this study, it can be claimed that the presence of tree cover (i.e. Zelkova carpinifolia and Ulmus minor) in habitats can provide better conditions for soil functions, which can be considered by managers to rehabilitate degraded lands.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • mountainous area
  • Zelkova carpinifolia
  • Rangelands
  • seasonal dynamics
  • soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization
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