تاثیر عمق کارگذاری قطره چکان بر افزایش راندمان جذب ریشه گیاه ذرت در سه نوع بافت‏ خاک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره)

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد آبیاری و زهکشی

چکیده

کشاورزی پایدار در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک در گرو استفاده بهینه از منابع آبی با کیفیت بالا می‏باشد. تبخیر از سطح خاک و نفوذ عمقی از جمله تلفات غیرمفید در آبیاری هستند که کاهش آن‏ها می‏تواند راندمان جذب آب توسط ریشه و به تبع آن میزان تولید محصول را افزایش دهد. اجرای آبیاری قطره‏ای زیرسطحی دستیابی به این هدف را مقدور می‏سازد. عمق نصب بهینه قطره‏چکان در آبیاری زیرسطحی، مکانی است که نه تنها مقدار تبخیر از سطح خاک را کاهش می‏دهد، بلکه نفوذ عمقی نیز افزایش پیدا نکند. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی تغییرات توزیع رطوبت خاک و جذب آب توسط ریشه در عمق­های مختلف کارگذاری قطره‏چکان و انتخاب عمق ایده­آل می‏باشد. برای این منظور با استفاده از شبیه‏سازی در نرم­افزار HYDRUS-2D، سه عامل موثر در میزان تلفات غیرمفید و آب مصرفی در آبیاری قطره‏ای شامل بافت خاک (لوم رسی، لوم و لوم شنی)، عمق کارگذاری قطره چکان (0، 10، 15 و 20 سانتی‏متر) و دبی قطره چکان (1، 2، 4 و 8 لیتر بر ساعت) به صورت حل عددی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد در بافت لوم شنی با افزایش عمق کارگذاری مقدار تبخیر تجمعی تا 40% می‏تواند کاهش پیدا کند ولی با توجه به مقدار نفوذ عمقی و آب مصرفی، بهترین عمق کارکذاری در 15 سانتی متری و با دبی 1 لیتر بر ساعت بدست آمد. تاثیر بافت خاک بر مقدار آب آبیاری بیشتر از تاثیر عمق نصب قطره چکان بود به‏طوری‏که در دبی 2 لیتر بر ساعت مقدار آب آبیاری در سه بافت خاک لوم، لوم رسی و لوم شنی به ترتیب برابر با 9/2، 1/3 و 6/4 مترمکعب بر متر بود. همچنین در بافت لوم‌رسی تغییر دبی و عمق کارگذاری، بیشترین و کمترین تاثیر را به ترتیب بر روی مقدار جذب آب ریشه و تبخیر از سطح خاک داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Dripper Installation Depth on Increasing the Maize Root Water Uptake Efficiency for Three Various Soil Textures

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Soltani 1
  • Hossein Rabbaniha 2
  • Mohadese Fakhar 1
1 Water Sci. and Eng. Dept. Faculty of agriculture and natural resources, IKIU
2 Department of Irrigation & Reclamation Engineering, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Sustainable agriculture at arid and semi-arid areas depends on optimized usage of fresh water resources. Evaporation from soil surface and deep percolation categorized as unuseful losses at irrigation, so their reduction could increase the root water uptake efficiency and yield production. Subsurface drip irrigation could provide this situation. Proper depth for installing dripper is the place that reduces soil surface evaporation and deep percolation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of various dripper installation depth on soil water content distribution and root water uptake and to choose the proper depth. For this purpose, HYDRUS-2D software was used to investigate the effect of three factors on non-beneficial losses and consumed water in drip irrigation, numerically. These factors were soil texture (loam, clay loam and sandy loam), installation depth (0, 10, 15 and 20 Cm) and dripper discharge (1, 2, 4 and 8 l.h-1). The results showed, although increasing the installation depth could reduce cumulative evaporation up to 40%, but the best installation depth was 15 Cm with discharge rate of 1 l.h-1, according to the amount of deep percolation and consumed water. The effect of soil texture was more than the effect of installation depth on the amount of irrigation water, so that the amount of irrigation water in 2 l.h-1 discharge rate was 2.9, 3.1 and 4.6 m3.m-1 for loam, clay loam and sandy loam soil texture, respectively. Also, for clay loam texture, dripper discharge had the highest effect on root water uptake and the installation depth had the lowest effect on soil surface evaporation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • subsurface Irrigation
  • Maximum Root Water Uptake
  • Optimum Installation Depth
  • Loam
  • Clay Loam and Sandy Loam
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