بررسی اثر تغییرات کاربری اراضی بر فرسایش خاک و تولید رسوب در حوضه رامهرمز با استفاده از طبقه‌بندی شیءگرا و مدل RUSLE

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران.

2 گروه علوم محیط زیست، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات خوزستان (تهران)، اهواز، ایران.

3 گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی روستایی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران.

چکیده

فرسایش خاک یک مشکل جهانی است که منابع آب و خاک را تهدید می­کند و تغییرات کاربری اراضی یکی از عوامل مهم در فرسایش خاک می­باشد. هدف این پژوهش ارزیابی اثر تغییرات کاربری بر فرسایش خاک و تولید رسوب ­در حوضه رامهرمز در استان خوزستان می­باشد. برای این کار از تصاویر ETM+ (2002) و OLI (2019) ماهواره لندست استفاده شد. ابتدا تصاویر ماهواره­ای با الگوریتم ماشین بردار پشتیبان (SVM) روش شیءگرا طبقه­بندی شده و تغییرات کاربری در سال­های 2019-2002 بررسی گردید. سپس فرسایش خاک با استفاده از مدل RUSLE محاسبه شده و میزان بار رسوب در منطقه برآورد گردید. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که مناطق مسکونی، اراضی بایر و زراعت دیم به ترتیب به میزان 86/3520، 72/7041 و 29/5281 هکتار افزایش مساحت داشته و پهنه­های آبی، مراتع و زراعت آبی به ترتیب 43/1760، 02/12323 و 43/1760 هکتار از مساحت خود را از دست داده­اند. نتیجه تغییر این مساحت­ها کاهش پوشش طبیعی خاک و افزایش فرسایش در منطقه بوده است. با درنظرگرفتن حد خاکسازی حدود یک تن در هکتار در سال ملاحظه گردید که برای سال 2002 حدود 24/43 درصد و برای سال 2019 حدود 99/64 درصد از مساحت منطقه مقدار فرسایش از حد قابل قبول بیشتر بوده است. نتایج محاسبات روش­های نسبت تحویل رسوب نیز نشان داد میزان نسبت تحویل رسوب بین 07/0 تا 28/0 و حداکثر بار رسوب بین 18/0 تا 63/0 تن در هکتار در سال متغیر است. بنابراین نتایج این پژوهش، لزوم پرداختن به مسأله فرسایش خاک در منطقه و ارائه راهکارهای مدیریتی را روشن می­کند.          

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the Effect of Land Use Change on Soil Erosion and Sediment Production in Ramhormoz Basin Using Object-Oriented Classification and RUSLE Model

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeed Amanpour 1
  • Mohammad Abiyat 2
  • mahmud abiyat 3
  • Majedeh Abiyat 1
1 Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
2 Department of Environmental Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan Science and Research Branch (Tehran), Ahvaz, Iran.
3 Department of Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Soil erosion is a global problem that threatens water and soil resources and land use change is one of the important factors in soil erosion. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of land use change on soil erosion and sediment production in Ramhormoz basin in Khuzestan province. Landsat ETM+ (2002) and OLI (2019) images were used for this purpose. First, satellite images were classified using the Object Oriented Method (SVM) algorithm and the land use changes were studied during the years 2019-2002. Then the amount of soil erosion was calculated using the RUSLE model and the amount of sediment load in the area was estimated. The results showed that the residential areas, barren and rainfed cultivated lands increased by 3520.86, 7041.72 and 5281.29 hectares, respectively, and water bodies, pastures and irrigated lands have lost 1760, 43.02, 02.02. 12323 and 1760/43 hectars of their lands, respectively. The result of these changes in areas has been a decrease in natural soil cover and an increase in erosion in the region. Considering the landing limit of about one ton per hectare per year, it was found that the amount of erosion have been more than the acceptable level in 43.24 and 64.99% of the area in years 2002 and 2019, respectively. The results of calculations of sediment delivery ratio methods also showed that the rate of sediment delivery ratio varies from 0.07 to 0.28 and the maximum sediment load varies from 0.18 to 0.63 tons per hectare per year. Therefore, the results of this study clarify the need to address the issue of soil erosion in the region and to provide management solutions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Land use
  • erosion
  • Object-Oriented Classification
  • RUSLE
  • Ramhormoz
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