واکنش عملکرد به تبخیر-تعرق ذرت، تحت تأثیر تنش آبی در مراحل مختلف رشد (در دشت قزوین)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی(ره)، قزوین، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی(ره)، قزوین، ایران.

چکیده

در این پژوهش، عملکرد و تبخیر-تعرق ذرت در شرایط اعمال تنش آبی در مراحل مختلف رشد بررسی شد. آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی انجام شد. تیمارها شامل اعمال تنش‌ آبی در مراحل رشد 4برگی، 12برگی، گل‌دهی، خمیری شدن دانه‌ها و یک تیمار شاهد تحت آبیاری کامل بود. تبخیر-تعرق روزانه گیاه بر اساس بیلان آب خاک در منطقه ریشه اندازه‌گیری شد. مقدار کل تبخیر-تعرق در تیمار شاهد و تیمارهای مذکور به‌ترتیب برابر با 462، 401، 5/322، 5/304 و 355 میلی‌متر در مترمربع برآورد شد. به‌همین ترتیب مقدار عملکرد زیست‌توده خشک ذرت برابر با 15025، 14422، 11384، 7746 و 13416 کیلوگرم بر هکتار بود. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین تا کم‌ترین مقدار تبخیر-تعرق و عملکرد، به‌ترتیب مربوط به تیمارهای شاهد، 4برگی، خمیری شدن، 12برگی و گل‌دهی بود. علت آن، میزان حساسیت و نیاز متفاوت گیاه به انجام تعرق در مراحل مختلف رشد بود. برای بررسی پاسخ عملکرد به تبخیر-تعرق ذرت، مقدار ضریب  در مراحل رشد مذکور به‌ترتیب برابر با 3/0، 8/0، 42/1 و 46/0 به‌دست آمد. در مرحله‌ی گل‌دهی، مقدار ضریب  بیشتر از عدد یک بود که بیانگر آن است که عملکرد ذرت نسبت به تبخیر- تعرق، کاهش بیشتری دارد. از سوی دیگر، مقدار بهره‌وری مصرف آب در تیمار شاهد و تیمارهای تحت تنش به‌ترتیب برابر با 25/3، 6/3، 53/3، 54/2 و 78/3 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب محاسبه شد. بیشترین تا کمترین مقادیر آن به‌ترتیب مربوط به تیمارهای خمیری شدن دانه‌ها، 4برگی، 12برگی، شاهد و گل‌دهی بود. نتایج نشان داد آبیاری کامل گیاه (تیمار شاهد) تضمینی برای افزایش بهره‌وری مصرف آب نبود. بلکه با جلوگیری از دستیابی به حداکثر عملکرد و پذیرش اندکی کاهش محصول، می‌توان بهره‌وری مصرف آب را افزایش داد. در این شرایط، انتخاب مرحله‌‌ی مناسب رشد گیاه برای اعمال کم‌آبیاری نیز حائز اهمیت بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Yield Reaction to Evapotranspiration of Maize, Under the Effect of Water Stress at Different Growth Stages (In Qazvin Plain)

نویسندگان [English]

  • reza saeidi 1
  • abbas sotoodehnia 2
1 Dept of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
2 Associate professor, Dept of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
چکیده [English]

In this research, the yield and evapotranspiration of maize were investigated under water stress at different growth stages. The experiment was performed as factorial in a randomized complete block design. Treatments included m water stress at growth stages of 4-leaf, 12-leaf, flowering, grains doughing and a control treatment under full irrigation. Daily plant evapotranspiration was measured based on soil water balance in the root zone. The total amounts of evapotranspiration in the control and the proposed treatments (water stress at growth stages of 4-leaf, 12-leaf, flowering, grains doughing) were estimated to be 462, 401, 322.5, 304.5 and 355 mm, respectively. Similarly, the dry biomass of maize was equal to 15025, 14422, 11384, 7746 and 13416 (kg. ha-1), respectively. Descending amounts of evapotranspiration and yield were correspond to control, 4-leaf, doughing, 12-leaf and flowering treatments, respectively. The reason was the sensitivity and different need of plant to transpiration, at different growth stages. To evaluate the yield response to maize evapotranspiration, the value of  coefficient in the mentioned growth stages was determined to be 0.3, 0.8, 1.42 and 0.46, respectively. At the flowering stage, the value of  coefficient was higher than one, which indicates that the yield of maize is reduced more than the evapotranspiration. The amount of water productivity in the control and stress treatments were calculated to be 3.25, 3.6, 3.53, 2.54 and 3.78 (kg.m-3), respectively. The highest to lowest values were corresponded to seeds doughing, 4-leaf, 12-leaf, control and flowering treatments, respectively. The results showed that the full irrigated plant (control treatment) was not a guarantee to increase the water productivity. Rather, by refusing to achieve the maximum yield and accepting the low reduction in yield, water productivity can be increased. Under these conditions, selecting the suitable plant growth stage for low irrigation was also important.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ky coefficient
  • Low irrigation
  • stomatal resistance
  • Water Productivity
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