اثرات گیاه پالایی و زیست پالایی بر حذف و انتقال هیدروکربن‌های نفتی در یک خاک آلوده به نفت خام

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مهندسی علوم خاک-دانشکده کشاورزی-دانشگاه زنجان-زنجان -ایران

2 گروه مهندسی علوم خاک-دانشگاه زنجان-زنجان-ایران

3 گروه مهندسی علوم خاک-دانشکده کشاورزی-دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی-اردبیل-ایران

چکیده

نفت خام یکی از مهم­ترین منابع انرژی است که تولید، انتقال، مصرف و دفع آن در مقیاس گسترده، آن را به یکی از مهم­ترین و رایج­ترین انواع آلودگی محیط زیست در سراسر جهان تبدیل کرده است. بمنظور مطالعه تاثیر گیاه­پالایی و زیست­پالایی بر شستشوی ترکیبات نفتی در خاک آلوده به نفت خام یک آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی و در سه تکرار طراحی و اجرا شد. فاکتورهای مورد مطالعه شامل سطوح آلودگی خاک با نفت خام شامل صفر (C0)، 2 درصد نفت خام (C1) و 4 درصد نفت خام (C2) و تیمارهای پالایشی شامل کاشت گیاه چمن Lolium perenne (T1)، باکتری Pseudomonas Putida + قارچ Phanerochaete Chrysosporium (T2)، کاشت چمن + باکتری Pseudomonas Putidaا + قارچ Phanerochaete Chrysosporium (T3)، و بدون تیمار پالایشی (T0) بودند. بعد از اتمام آزمایش، کل هیدروکربن­های نفتی Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) در عمق­های مختلف ستون خاک (5، 15، 25، 35 و 45 سانتی­متر) اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد تیمارهای پالایشی غلظت کل ترکیبات نفتی را در منطقه ریشه کاهش دادند و تیمار T3پالایشی غلظت کل ترکیبات نفتی را در هر دو سطح آلودگی نفت خام C1 و C2 به ترتیب 34 و 59 درصد کاهش داد. ترکیبات نفتی همچنین در عمق­های غیر آلوده مشاهده شدند که نشان دهنده حرکت ترکیبات نفتی از لایه­های بالایی به لایه­های پایینی بود. کمترین میزان انتقال ترکیبات نفتی به عمق­های پایینی ستون خاک در تیمار T3 پالایشی و بیشترین میزان انتقال ترکیبات نفتی در تیمار T2 پالایشی مشاهده شد. به­طور کلی تیمارهای پالایشی در خاک­های آلوده به مواد نفتی، به­ویژه در منطقه ریشه ترکیبات نفتی را تجزیه کرده ولی نمی­توانند از حرکت ترکیبات نفتی و انتقال آن­ها به لایه­های پایین­تر جلوگیری کنند. تا حدی که امکان وارد شدن این ترکیبات به داخل آب­های زیر زمینی هم وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Phytoremediation and Bioremediation on Removal and Transferal of Oil Compounds in A Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Akbar Nemati 1
  • Ahmad Golchin 2
  • Akbar Ghavidel 3
1 Department of soil science, Agriculture Faculty, Zanjan University , Zanjan, Iran;
2 Department of soil science, Agriculture Faculty, Zanjan University , Zanjan, Iran;
3 Department of soil science, Agriculture Faculty, Mohaghegh Ardabili University , Ardabil, , Iran;
چکیده [English]

Crude oil is one of the most important sources of energy and its large scale production, transmission, consumption and disposal, making it one of the most important and common types of environmental pollution in the worldwide. In order to investigate the effects of phytoremediation and bioremediation on translocation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) in crude oil contaminated soil, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was conducted. Three rates of crude oil contamination; 0 (C0), 2 (C1) and 4% w/w (C2) and four remediation treatments; Lolium perenne (T1), Pseudomonas putida+Phanerochaete chrysosporium (T2), Lolium perenne+Pseudomonas putida+ Phanerochaete chrysosporium (T3) and control (T0) were applied. At the end of experiment, TPHs concentrations in different depths of soil column (5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 cm depths) were measured. The results showed that the different remediation treatments decreased the TPHs concentration in the root zone and T3 treatment decreased the concentration of TPHs both in C1 and C2 contamination rates by 34 and 59%, respectively. Oil compounds were also observed in the uncontaminated sub layers which indicated oil compounds transported from upper layer to lower layers. The lowest TPHs translocation to sub layers in the soil columns observed in T3 remediation treatment and the highest amount of TPHs translocation to sub layers observed in T2 remediation treatment. Generally, remediation treatments in oil contaminated soil degrade and decrease oil compounds specially in root zone but cannot prevent oil compounds movement and translocation to sub layers. Consequently, oil compounds may enter to groundwater.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • soil pollution
  • Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
  • Soil Column
  • Contaminants translocation
  • Soil remediation
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