بررسی عملکرد و بهره‌وری آب در هیبریدهای مختلف ذرت در شرایط استفاده از سیستم آبیاری قطره‌ای-نواری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار، گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

4 گروه آبیاری و آبادانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

با توجه به این که بخش کشاورزی بزرگترین مصرف‏کننده آب در ایران به‏شمار می‏رود، افزایش بهره‌وری آب جزء ضرورت‌های این بخش محسوب می‌شود. استفاده از آبیاری قطره‏ای-نواری با توجه به راندمان بالا و به‏طور مشخص کاهش تلفات نفوذ عمقی و تبخیر از سطح خاک، گزینه‌ای مناسب برای آبیاری است. همچنین، یکی دیگر از راهکار­های افزایش بهره­وری استفاده از هیبریدهای مختلف یک گیاه است که عملکرد بالاتری دارند. هدف از این مطالعه بررسی عملکرد و حجم آب آبیاری، محاسبه شاخص‌های بهره‌وری فیزیکی و اقتصادی آب هیبریدهای مختلف محصول ذرت در شرایط استفاده از آبیاری قطره‌ای-نواری است. این مطالعه در مزرعه پژوهشی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران واقع در کرج در سال 1396 انجام شد. تیمارهای مورد بررسی نه هیبرید ذرت (BK42، KSC400، KSC260، BK65، KSC600، BK50، BK74، Barekat3، KSC704) بودند. نتایج حاصل از این مطالعه نشان داد نوع هیبرید اثر معنی‏داری بر عملکرد و بهره­وری آب-دانه داشت. در میان هیبریدهای مورد بررسی، به‏طور کلی هیبرید BK65 دارای بیشترین عملکرد بیولوژیکی (54/19 تن بر هکتار) و بهره‏وری آب-بیولوژیکی (43/3 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب) و کمترین عملکرد دانه (55/10 تن در هکتار) و بهره‏وری آب-دانه (62/1 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب) را داشت. علاوه بر این هیبرید KSC600 بیشترین عملکرد دانه (86/13 تن بر هکتار) و بهره‏وری آب-دانه (12/2 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب) را در میان سایر هیبریدها داشت. دلیل بالا بودن عملکرد بیولوژیکی هیبریدBK65  نسبت به دیگر هیبرید‏ها رشد بیشتر قسمت رویشی نسبت به زایشی بود. هیبرید BK42 کمترین عملکرد و بهره­وری را داشت و با هیبرید KSC260 در یک گروه آماری قرار گرفتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Crop Yield and Water Productivity of Different Hybrids of Maize with Drip-Tape Irrigation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elahe Mirzaee 1
  • Hamed Ebrahimian 2
  • Arezoo Nazi Ghameshlou 3
  • Omid Raja 4
1 Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Associate professor in Irrigation & Drainage Eng. Dept. of Irrigation & Reclamation Eng. College of Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Tehran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, P. O. Box 4111, Karaj, 31587-77871, Iran.
4 Department of Irrigation and Reproduction, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Increasing water productivity in agricultural sector is necessary, since this sector is the largest consumer of water in Iran. Because of higher irrigation efficiency, in particular, the reduction of losses of deep percolation and evaporation from the soil surface, drip-tape system is a good option for irrigation. Additionally, using varieties of a crop having high yield is another way to increase water productivity. The objective of this study is to investigate the crop yield and irrigation water volume and to estimate the physical and economical water productivity for different hybrids of maize by drip-tape irrigation. Field experiments were conducted at the research farm of the Agricultural and Natural Resources College of the University of Tehran, in Karaj in 2017. The treatments were nine hybrids of maize (BK42, KSC400, KSC260, BK65, KSC600, BK50, BK74, Barekat3 and KSC704). The results of this study showed that the type of hybrid had a significant effect on crop yield and water productivity. Generally, among the examined varieties, the BK65 hybrid had the highest biomass production (19.54 ton/ha) and biomass water productivity (3.43 kg/m3), and the lowest yield (10.55 ton/ha) and grain water productivity (1.62 kg/m3). Additionally, the KSC600 hybrid had the highest grain yield (13.86 ton/ha) and grain water productivity (2.12 kg/m3) compared to other hybrids. The reason for the high biological performance of BK65 hybrid compared to other hybrids was the higher growth of vegetative part related to reproductive part. The BK42 and KSC260 hybrids had the lowest yield and productivity. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Physical and economical water productivity
  • hybrids of maize
  • Water requirement
  • Karaj
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