بررسی سطوح مختلف کم‌آبیاری بر عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب گیاه استویا (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) در محیط‌های گلخانه و مزرعه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی آب، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه. ایران

2 گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

3 گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

چکیده

 
ایران با متوسط بارندگی 230 میلی­متر در سال، در زمره مناطق خشک و نیمه­خشک جهان طبقه­بندی
می
­شود که با بحران آب روبرو است. از آن جا که منابع آبی با کیفیت مطلوب برای آبیاری محصولات در جهان محدود است، لذا استفاده از کم­آبیاری به عنوان روشی برای کاهش مصرف آب در آینده امری ضروری است. گیاه استویا به­عنوان گیاهی با اثرات دارویی و ضد دیابت، بومی منطقه کوهستانی آمامبی واقع در مرز برزیل و پاراگوئه است که در ایران در شیراز و اصفهان به­صورت انبوه کشت می‌شود. گلیکوزید‌های دی‌ترپنی موجود در این گیاه (عامل اصلی ایجاد طعم بسیار شیرین در عصاره‌های گیاه) تا 300 برابر شیرین‌تر از شکر می‌باشند که در صنایع دارویی و غذایی کاربرد دارند. در این پژوهش، به منظور بررسی تاثیر کم­آبیاری بر عملکرد محصول استویا، تیمارهای آبیاری شامل 100 (تیمار شاهد) 80، 60 و 40 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه مورد نظر قرار گرفتند. این آزمایش در سه تکرار و در محیط گلخانه و مزرعه در سال های 1395 و 1396 انجام شد. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که آستانه تحمل گیاه استویا به کم­آبیاری برای جلوگیری از کاهش عملکرد برگ و قند در محیط گلخانه به­ترتیب حدود (2/3 و 1/3) و (94/0 و 83/0) و درمزرعه تحقیقاتی (3/3 و 1/3) و (12/1 و 98/0) برابر درصد کم­آبیاری در سال اول و دوم کشت می‌باشد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Different Levels of Irrigation on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni in Greenhouse and Field Environment Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Houshang Ghamarnia 1
  • Zahra Jalili 2
  • Seyed Vahidoddin Rezvani 3
1 Water Engineering Dept, Faculty of Agricultural Science and Engineering, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Water Engineering Department, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Water Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Iran, with a mean precipitation of 230 mm per year, is classified as arid and semi-arid region in the world, facing a water crisis. Since, water resources with high quality for irrigation are limited, therefore the use of deficit irrigation as a method for reducing water consumption is essential in the future. Stevia is a plant with medicinal and anti-diabetic effects, native to the mountainous region of Amoeba, located on the border of Brazil and Paraguay, which is widely cultivated in Shiraz and Isfahan of Iran. The diterpene glycosides in this plant (the main cause of the very sweet taste in plant extracts) are up to 300 times sweeter than sugar used in the pharmaceutical and food industries. In the present study, different treatments consist of 40, 60, 80 and 100% of total crop water requirement were carried out to investigate the effects of different water shortage on (Stevia Rebaudiana B.). This experiment was performed in three replications in the greenhouse and farm environment condition in 2016 and 2017.The results showed that the tolerance threshold of stevia in low irrigation to prevent reduced leaf and sugar yield in the greenhouse environment was about (3.2 and 3.1) and (0.94 and 0.83) and in the farm condition was obtained as: (3.3 and 3.1) and (1.12 and 0.98) of defecit irrigation percentage in the first and second year of cultivation respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • lysimeter
  • (Stevia Rebaudiana B.)
  • Loss irrigation
  • Greenhouse
  • field
 
 
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