تاثیر اصلاح ‌کننده‌های آلی و معدنی بر حذف فلزهای سنگین در خاک آلوده به لجن فاضلاب

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بو علی سینا همدان

2 دانشجوی دکتری علوم خاک. دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

کاربرد لجن فاضلاب در زمین­های کشاورزی ممکن است خطر آلوده شدن خاک به فلزهای سنگین را در پی داشته باشد. استفاده از اصلاح­ کننده­ها جهت کاهش اثرات زیان­بار لجن فاضلاب اضافه شده به خاک امری ضروری است. هدف از این مطالعه، بررسی تاثیر اصلاح کننده­های آلی و معدنی در خاک آلوده به لجن فاضلاب بود. ابتدا لجن فاضلاب در مقادیر 0، 10، 20، 30،40 و 50 تن بر هکتار به خاک اضافه شد. جهت بررسی تاثیر اصلاح­ کننده آلی، کرم­ خاکی گونه Eiseniafetidaبه خاک­های آلوده اضافه شد. بعد از 42 روز غلظت کل و جزء­بندی فلزهای­ سنگین در خاک بررسی شد. جهت بررسی اصلاح­ کننده معدنی، نانو ذرات اکسید آلومینیوم به خاک اضافه شد. نتایج نشان داد که فعالیت کرم ­خاکی سبب کاهش مقدار کل فلزهای سنگین مس، روی، سرب، نیکل و کادمیوم شد. کرم­های خاکی سبب کاهش همه­ی فلزها به جز کادمیوم در جزء تبادلی شدند. جزء باقیمانده دو فلز روی و مس افزایش و برای سه عنصر دیگر کاهش مشاهده شد. غلظت کل فلزهای سنگین در نتیجه حضور نانو ذرات اکسید آلومینیوم کاهش یافت. نانو ذرات اکسید آلومینیوم سبب کاهش فلزهای سنگین به جز سرب و کادمیوم در جزء تبادلی شدند. به طور­ کلی، استفاده از کرم ­خاکی در مقایسه با نانو ذرات می­تواند موثر­تر باشد. از لحاظ اقتصادی استفاده از نانو ذرات به صرفه نمی­باشد و هزینه بیشتری را به دنبال دارد، در صورتی که حضور کرم ­خاکی به عنوان موجودات زنده خاک بسیار مقرون به صرفه می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Impact of Organic and Inorganic Amendments on Removal of Heavy Metals in Soils Polluted with Sewage Sludge

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ghasem Rahimi 1
  • Eisa Ebrahimi 2
1 Assistant Prof. Soil science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu Ali Sina University. Hamadan
2 Ph. D. Student, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan
چکیده [English]

Application of sewage sludge on agricultural fields may increase the risk of soil contamination with heavy metals and could affect distribution of heavy metals in soil. The application of amendment is essential in order to reduce the harmful effects of sewage sludge applied to the soil. This study aimed to investigate the impact of organic and inorganic amendments on removal of heavy metals in the soils contaminated through sewage sludge application. Firstly, the sewage sludge was applied to the soil at levels of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 tons per hectare, which increased heavy metal concentrations in the soil. Then, earthworm (Eisenia fetida) was added to the polluted soil in order to study the effect of organic amendments. The total concentration and fractionation of heavy metals, the weight and mortality of earthworm were evaluated after 42 days.  Nanoparticles of Aluminium oxide was applied to the soil in order to study the effect of inorganic amendments. Earthworm activity caused a reduction in the total amount of Copper, Zinc, Nickel and Cadmium, while led to an increase in the total amount of Lead. Earthworms decreased all metals except Cadmium in the exchangeable fraction. The residual fraction of Zinc and Copper increased whereas the residual fraction of other three elements decreased. The total concentrations of heavy metals were decreased as a result of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles treatment. Heavy metals for Lead and Cadmium in exchangeable fraction were reduced by nanoparticles of aluminum oxide. The amount of all metals was decreased for organic fraction. The Lead and Cadmium were decreased in inorganic and residual fractions whereas other elements were increased. In general, the use of earthworms can be more effective than nanoparticles. The use of nanoparticles is not economic, while the presence of earthworms as soil organisms is very cost-effective.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • sewage sludge
  • Amendment
  • earthworm
  • Nanoparticles of aluminum oxide
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