تاثیر بقایای گیاهی در تناوب گندم-ذرت بر میزان کربن آلی و حاصلخیزی خاک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

2 گروه علوم میکروبی، خاک و گیاه، دانشگاه ایالتی میشیگان، میشیگان، ایالات متحده آمریکا.

3 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

4 پژوهشکده کشاورزی هسته‌ای، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هسته‌ای، کرج، ایران

5 دانشکده مهندسی شیمی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

افزودن بقایای گیاهی یک راهبرد مدیریتی موثر برای افزودن عناصر غذایی و بهبود کارایی استفاده از آن، فراهم کردن شرایط بهتر رشد ریشه و تولید پایدار محصول می‏باشد. به منظور بررسی تأثیر نگهداشت مقادیر مختلف بقایای گیاهی بر میزان کربن آلی و وضعیت تغذیه­ای خاک در دو عمق 10-0 و 20-10 سانتی­متر در تناوب گندم-ذرت تحت سامانه خاک­ورزی مرسوم، آزمایشی مزرعه­ای به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مزرعه آموزشی و پژوهشی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران در دو فصل زراعی اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل نگهداری پنج سطح مختلف بقایای گیاهی (100، 75، 50، 25 و 0 درصد) بود که طی دو مرحله در تناوب کشت گندم-ذرت اعمال گردید. یافته­های این پژوهش حاکی از تأثیر بارز مقدار نگهداشت بقایا بر خصوصیات اندازه­گیری شده بود. در میان تیمارهای نگهداشت بقایا، تیمار 100 درصد بقایا بیشترین میزان افزایش کربن آلی (4/38 درصد)، فسفر (34 درصد) و پتاسیم قابل جذب (6/47 درصد) و همچنین عناصر کم مصرف آهن (27 درصد)، منگنز (3/30 درصد)، مس (5/39 درصد)، و روی قابل جذب (62 درصد) را نسبت به تیمار حذف بقایا نشان داد. تیمار 25 درصد نگهداشت بقایا نیز کمترین مقدار را برای خصوصیات مطالعه شده نسبت به دیگر تیمارهای با مقادیر بیشتر نگهداشت بقایا نشان داد. اثر عمق نیز تنها در مورد آهن، روی و فسفر قابل جذب تأثیر معنی­دار داشت و مقدار این شاخص­ها در عمق 10-0 سانتی­متر نسبت به عمق 20-10 سانتی­متر بیشتر بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Crop Residue on Organic Carbon and Fertility of the Soil in Wheat-Corn Rotation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morad Mirzaei 1
  • Manouchehr Gorji Anari 1
  • Ehsan Razavy-Toosi 2
  • Hossein Asadi 3
  • Ebrahim Moghiseh 4
  • Seyed Morteza Zamir 5
1 Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
2 Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, Michigan, USA
3 Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Tehran University, Karaj, Iran
4 Nuclear Agriculture School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Karaj, Iran
5 Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Addition of plant residues is an effective strategy for increasing soil nutrients, improving their use efficiency, providing better conditions for root growth and sustainable crop production. A field experiment was conducted to assess the effects of incorporation of varying rates of crop residue on the soil organic carbon and nutrients status at 0-10, and 10-20 cm soil depth, in a wheat-corn rotation under conventional tillage system. The field experiment was performed as a factorial and in the form of completely randomized block design with four replications in the farm of agricultural and natural resources college of University of Tehran for two growing years. The treatments included incorporation of five levels of crop residues (100, 75, 50, 25 and 0%) which were added to the soil in two steps, following wheat and corn rotation. The results of this study indicated a significant effect of crop residues on the measured properties. Among the crop residues treatments, the 100% level showed the greatest increase of organic carbon (38.4%), available phosphorus (34%) and potassium (47.6%), as well as iron (27%), manganese (30.3%), copper (39.5%) and zinc (62%), as compared to 0% residue treatment. The 25% residue treatment showed the lowest value for the studied properties, compared to other residues treatments. Available phosphorus, iron and zinc were significantly affected by depth and their values decreased with increasing depth from 0-10 to 10-20 cm.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conventional tillage
  • crop rotation
  • nutrients
  • Organic residue
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