اثر بافت خاک و سطوح مختلف آبیاری بر نیاز آبی و ضریب گیاهی زیتون تلخ (Melia azedarach L.) در منطقه کرج

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه احیاء مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 گروه جنگلداری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 گروه جنگلداری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

رشد روزافزون جمعیت، لزوم توسعه فضای سبز شهری، کمبود منابع آب و افزایش رقابت بین بخش­های مختلف مصرف­کننده آب، تعیین دقیق نیازآبی گونه­های گیاهی فضای سبز را به امری ضروری تبدیل کرده است. در این پژوهش نیاز آبی ( ) و ضریب گیاهی ( ) زیتون­تلخ (.Melia azedarach L) با استفاده از میکرولایسیمتر به­صورت فاکتوریل با دو عامل بافت خاک و تنش خشکی با طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی در 10 تکرار در شرایط اقلیمی کرج در سال 99-1398 اندازه­گیری شد. عامل بافت خاک شامل دو سطح لوم­رسی و لوم­شنی و عامل تنش خشکی در سه سطح MAD برابر 3/0، 5/0 و 7/0 بود. نتایج نشان داد که میانگین  10 روزه در سطوح تنش­ خشکی  3/0، 5/0 و 7/0 در بافت لوم­شنی به ترتیب برابر 35/15، 81/13 و 63/12 میلی‌متر و در بافت لوم­رسی به­ترتیب برابر است با 35/19، 9/16 و 58/16 میلی‌متر می­باشد. در هر دو خاک لوم­رسی و لوم­شنی مقدار  در تیمار تنش 3/0 بیشتر از تنش 5/0 و آن هم بیشتر از تنش 7/0 است. مجموع نیازآبی خالص زیتون­تلخ در بافت لوم­رسی برای سطوح تنش 3/0، 5/0 و 7/0 به ترتیب برابر 15/445، 59/388 و 4/381 میلی‌متر و در خاک لوم­شنی این مقادیر به ترتیب برابر 02/353، 59/317 و 54/290 میلی‌متر به­دست آمد. هم­چنین مقدار متوسط  زیتون­تلخ طی دوره رشد در بافت­های لوم­رسی به ازای تنش­های 3/0، 5/0 و 7/0 به­ترتیب برابر است با 34/0، 3/0 و 28/0 و این مقادیر برای خاک لوم­شنی به­ترتیب برابر با 27/0، 24/0 و 22/0 می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Soil Texture and Different Levels of Irrigation Amount on Water Requirement and Crop Coefficient of Melia azedarach L. in Karaj Area

نویسندگان [English]

  • Khaled Ahmadaali 1
  • Hossein Rahimi 2
  • Vahid Etemad 3
1 Department of Arid and Mountainous Regions Reclamation, Faculty of natural resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of natural resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of natural resources
چکیده [English]

The growing population, the need to develop urban green space, water resources scarcity and the competition between different sectors of water consumption have necessitated to determine the accurate crop water requirement of different species in green spaces. In this study, a factorial experiment with two factors (soil texture and drought stress) was conducted to determine evapotranspiration (ETc) and crop coefficient (Kc) of Melia azedarach L. using microlysimeters based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 10 replications. This study was performed in the climatic conditions of Karaj during 2019-2020. Soil texture consisted of clay loam and sandy loam and drought stress levels consisted of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 of management allowed depletion (MAD). The results showed that the 10-day ETc under 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 MAD were 15.35, 13.81 and 12.63 mm in clay loam and they were 19.35, 16.9 and 16.58 mm in sandy loam soil, respectively. In both clay loam and sandy loam soils, the ETc decreased as drought stress increased. During the growing season, total net water requirement of Melia azedarach L. under 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 MAD in clay loam soil were 445.15, 388.58 and 381.41 mm, and in sandy soil were 353.02, 317.59 and 290.54 mm, respectively. Also, the Kc coefficient of Melia azedarach L. during the growing period in clay loam soil under 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 MAD were determined to be 0.34, 0.3, and 0.28 and in sandy loam soils were 0.27, 0.24, and 0.22, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Evapotranspiration
  • Green space
  • microlysimeter
  • TDR
  • Weighting method
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