اثر کرت‌بندی بر یکنواختی آبشویی نیمرخ خاک در مدل آزمایشگاهی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی(ره)، قزوین، ایران.

چکیده

در آزمایشی، تأثیر کرت‌بندی سطح خاک بر یکنواختی آبشویی نمک‌ها از نیمرخ خاک بررسی شد. آزمایش در مدل فیزیکی با ابعاد (ارتفاع×عرض×طول) 1×5/0×2 متر انجام شد و عملیات آبشویی در نیمرخ خاک با حضور لوله زهکش زیرزمینی شبیه‌سازی شد. کرت‌بندی شامل جداسازی سطح خاک در چهار قسمت مساوی (با ابعاد 5/0×5/0 متر)، برای جلوگیری از اختلاط آب در سطح خاک بود. در حالت‌های قبل و بعد از کرت‌بندی، یک عمق یکسان آب برای آبشویی در نظر گرفته شد. پس از آبشویی، هدایت الکتریکی عصاره‌ی اشباع خاک در اعماق 20، 40 و 60 سانتی‌متری از سطح خاک و فواصل 25، 75، 125 و 175 سانتی‌متری از محل نصب زهکش اندازه‌گیری شد. مقدار انحراف معیار داده‌های شوری خاک در قبل و بعد از کرت‌بندی به‌ترتیب 2 و 63/0 بود. ضریب یکنواختی توزیع شوری در نیمرخ خاک، در شرایط قبل و بعد از کرت‌بندی به‌ترتیب 45 و 76 درصد بود. نتایج نشان داد وجود زهکش، بر تفاوت سرعت نفوذ آب در قسمت‌های مختلف سطح خاک مؤثر بود. به‌طوری که سرعت نفوذ آب به داخل خاک در فواصل 25، 75، 125 و 175 سانتی‌متری از زهکش، به‌ترتیب برابر با 9/1، 7/1، 56/1 و 47/1 میلی‌متر بر ساعت برآورد شد. بنابراین از طریق کرت‌بندی، از نفوذ نامتوازن آب در سطح خاک جلوگیری شد تا نواحی مختلف نیمرخ خاک شستشوی یکنواختی داشته باشد. نتایج فوق نشان داد که به‌جای مصرف آب بیشتر، می‌توان با اتخاذ راه‌کار مدیریتی به یکنواختی آبشویی خاک دست یافت. در این صورت از تولید زهاب بیشتر، تخلیه‌ی عناصر غذایی از خاک و آلودگی محیط زیست جلوگیری می‌شود.       

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Plotting on Leaching Uniformity of Soil Profile in Laboratory Model

نویسندگان [English]

  • reza saeidi
  • abbas sotoodehnia
Dept of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In an experiment, the effect of soil surface plotting on leachinguniformity of soil profile was investigated. The experiment was performed in a physical model with dimensions (height×width×length) of 1×0.5×2 meters. The leaching of the soil profile was simulated in presence of subsurface drainage pipe. The plots were made by separating the soil surface into four equal parts (with dimensions of 0.5×0.5 m), in order to prevent water mixing on the soil surface. An equal water depth was applied for soil leaching, before and after soil surface plotting. After leaching, the ECe of soil samples taken from different depths (20, 40 and 60 cm) and different distances from the drain pipe (25, 75, 125 and 175 cm) were measured. The amount of standard deviation of soil salinity data were 2(dS/m) and 0.63(dS/m) before and after soil surface plotting, respectively. The uniformity coefficient of salinity distribution in the soil profile before and after soil surface plotting was estimated to be 45% and 76%, respectively. The results showed that the presence of drain pipe was effective on infiltration rate at different parts of the soil surface. So that the infiltration rate was estimated to be 1.9, 1.7, 1.56 and 1.47 (mm/h) at 25, 75, 125 and 175 cm far from the drain pipe, respectively. Through soil plotting, the unbalanced water infiltration to the soil surface was prevented, in order to have a uniform soil washing at different places. The results showed that the soil leaching uniformity can be achieved by adopting a management strategy. Therefore, more drainage water production, depletion of soil nutrients and environmental pollution are prevented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drainage
  • Leaching curve
  • Soil permeability
  • Soil Salinity
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