بررسی جذب و انتقال سرب از خاک‌های آلوده به فلزات سنگین به اندام‌های هوایی ارقام مختلف گندم پائیزه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

تجمع فلزات سنگین در خاک‌های کشاورزی، علاوه بر آلودگی محیط‌زیست موجب افزایش غلظت و جذب فلزات سنگین در گیاهان می‌شود. به‌منظور بررسی جذب و انتقال سرب در چهار رقم گندم پائیزه (زارع، پیشگام، میهن و اوروم)، تأثیر شش سطح آلودگی خاک به سرب (صفر، 25، 50، 100، 200 و 400 میلی‌گرم سرب در کیلوگرم خاک از منبع نیترات سرب [Pb(NO3)2]) بر روی این ارقام به‌صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار در شرایط گلخانه مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که سطوح آلودگی خاک به‌ سرب، اثر معنی‌داری در سطح احتمال یک درصد P) (< 0.01  بر جذب سرب ارقام مختلف گندم داشت. بیش‌ترین مقدار جذب سرب زیست­توده در رقم میهن و از سطح آلودگی 400 میلی‌گرم سرب بر کیلوگرم خاک به میزان 67/2 میلی‌گرم در گلدان اندازه‌گیری شد. بیش‌ترین میزان وزن تر، بیش‌ترین غلظت سرب ریشه و بخش هوایی و بیش‌ترین مقدار جذب سرب زیست‌توده گیاه گندم در تمام سطوح آلودگی خاک به سرب در ارقام میهن و پیشگام مشاهده شد که نشان می‌دهد این ارقام توانایی بیشتری در جذب و انتقال سرب از ریشه به بخش هوایی دارند .فاکتور انتقال سرب برای هر چهار رقم گندم و در سطوح صفر تا 100 میلی‌گرم سرب بر کیلوگرم خاک کم‌تر از یک و فاکتور تجمع زیستی سرب بیش‌تر از یک بود. با توجه به اینکه در هر چهار رقم گندم مورد بررسی غلظت سرب در ریشه بیشتر از بخش هوایی بود، می‌توان این ارقام را جز گیاهان اجتناب‌کننده عنصر سرب در این سطوح طبقه‌بندی کرد. مطالعات بیشتر در شرایط عرصه توصیه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of Lead Uptake and Translocation from Heavy Metals Contaminated Soils to the Aerial Parts of Different Winter Wheat Cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Atefeh Tavakoli
  • Ahmad Golchin
  • Samaneh Abdollahi
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils, in addition to environmental pollution, increases the concentration and uptake of heavy metals in plants. In order to investigate theuptake and translocation of lead in four cultivars of winter wheat (Zare, Pishgam, Mihan and Orum), the effect of six levels of soil contamination by Pb (0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg Pb/kg soil from lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] source) on the proposed cultivars were investigated as a factorial pot experiment with completely randomized design and three replications in the greenhouse conditions. The results showed that the levels of contaminated soil by Pb had a significant effect (P < 0.01) on Pb uptake of different cultivars of wheat. The highest amount of Pb uptake was measured in Mihan cultivar at level of 400 mg Pb/kg soil and was 2.67 mg in pot. The highest fresh weights of biomass, the highest accumulation of Pb in root and aerial parts, and the highest amount of Pb uptake by wheat were observed in Mihan and Pishgam cultivars at all levels of soil contamination, indicating that these cultivars have higher abilities to uptake and transfer Pb from the root to the aerial parts. The translocation factor of Pb was less than one for all four wheat cultivars at levels of 0 to 100 mg Pb/kg soil, while the bioaccumulation factor of Pb was more than one. As in the proposed wheat cultivars, the concentration of Pb in the root was higher than the one in aerial parts, they can be classified as excluder plants at these levels. Further studies are recommended in the field.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • soil pollution
  • Pishgam variety
  • Zare variety
  • Mihan variety
  • lead
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