تهیه نقشه آرسنیک در خاک‌های استان آذربایجان شرقی و بررسی امکان کنترل آزادسازی آن (مطالعه موردی شهرستان هشترود)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناورزی کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 بخش آزمایشگاه ها، موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب، کرج، ایران

چکیده

آرسنیک عنصری سمی بوده و سطوح افزایش‌یافته آن در منابع آب و خاک مشکلات متعددی را برای مردم شهرستان هشترود به وجود آورده است. فقدان اطلاعات در مورد وضعیت خاک منطقه به آرسنیک باعث شد تا تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی غلظت و پراکنش آرسنیک در خاک­های منطقه هشترود و بررسی امکان کنترل آزادسازی آن طراحی و اجرا شود. به این منظور 53 نمونه خاک سطحی از منطقه جمع­آوری و غلظت آرسنیک کل آن‌ها اندازه­گیری و نقشه پراکنش غلظت آرسنیک تهیه شد. به‌منظور بررسی امکان کاربرد مواد اصلاحی برای کاهش آزادسازی آرسنیک، پنج نمونه خاک آلوده انتخاب و مواد اصلاحی گچ و هیدروکسید آهن هر کدام در سه سطح به آن‌ها افزوده شد. نتایج نشان داد که خاک­های منطقه آلوده به آرسنیک هستند؛ به­طوری­که میانگین غلظت آرسنیک در کل خاک­های مورد مطالعه 36/49 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم بود اما بیش از 80 درصد خاک­های مورد مطالعه غلظتی کمتر از حد مجاز داشتند. خاک­های کشاورزی روستاهای قوپوز و قزللو بیشترین مقدار آلودگی به آرسنیک را داشتند. کاربرد هیدروکسید آهن باعث کاهش معنی­دار آزادسازی آرسنیک در خاک­های مختلف شد؛ به­طوری­که کاربرد 10 تن در هکتار هیدروکسید آهن به ترتیب 5/64، 4/82، 7/83، 9/98 و 100 درصد مقدار آرسنیک محلول را در خاک­های 1، 2، 3، 4 و 5 کاهش داد و افزایش سطح کاربرد در این مطالعه باعث کاهش شدیدتر آزادسازی آرسنیک شد. به‌طور مشابه گچ نیز باعث کاهش معنی­دار آزادسازی آرسنیک شد و آزادسازی کمتر آرسنیک با افزایش کاربرد گچ مشاهده شد. در مقایسه با گچ، هیدروکسید آهن ماده اصلاحی بسیار مؤثرتر و مناسب‌تری می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Arsenic Mapping in the East Azarbaijan Province and the Feasibility Study of Decreasing Arsenic Release (A Case Study of Hashtrood)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Marzi 1
  • Hasan Towfighi 1
  • Mohsen Farahbakhsh 1
  • karim Shahbazi 2
1 Department of Soil Science,, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agricultural and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Department of laboratories, Soil and Water Research Institute, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The increased levels of Arsenic, a poison element, in the soils and waters of Hashtrood city have caused different health issues for the people. Due to the lack of information about the arsenic content of the soils, the present study was conducted to survey the soil arsenic distribution and the possibility of reducing arsenic release from the soils. For this purpose, 53 soil samples from the top layer were collected and the arsenic concentration and distribution map was determined. Additionally, in order to evaluate the effect of iron hydroxide and gypsum as soil amendments, five polluted soil samples were selected and treated with the proposed amendments; each at three levels. The results revealed that the agricultural soils of the studied area are polluted by arsenic, as its average concentration was 49.36 mg/kg, but more than 80 percent of the studied soils had a lower concentration than the standard level. The agricultural soils of Ghopoz and Ghezellou showed the highest arsenic contamination. Application of iron hydroxide reduced the arsenic releasement in different soils significantly, as 10 ton/hectare iron hydroxide application reduced arsenic solution 64.5, 82.4, 83.7, 98.9, and 100 percent in the soils of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Increasing the level of iron hydroxide application decreased arsenic release more intensively. Similarly, the gypsum decreased the arsenic release significantly and its reduction was more by increasing gypsum application In comparison to gypsum, the iron hydroxide was much more effective in controlling the arsenic releasement.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agricultural soils
  • arsenic releasement
  • soil pollution
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