بررسی حاصلخیزی اراضی شالیزاری با استفاده از شاخص تلفیقی باروری خاک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد آزمایشگاه، مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

2 استادیار مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

3 استادیار مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، آمل، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه خاکشناسى، دانشکده کشاورزى، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت،ایران

5 مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، آمل، ایران

چکیده

افزایش جمعیت و تقاضای مواد غذایی نیازمند نگرش جدی به افزایش بهره­وری زمین­های کشاورزی است. در این ارتباط مناسب­ترین روش، افزایش عملکرد در واحد سطح می­باشد. یکی از روش­های افزایش عملکرد، افزایش حاصلخیزی خاک­های کشاورزی است. شاخص­های تلفیقی زیادی وجود دارند که می­توانند شرایط حاصلخیزی خاک را به­خوبی نشان ­دهند، از جمله آن­ها  شاخص تلفیقی باروری خاک  (IFI)است. مهم­ترین هدف در این تحقیق ارزیابی وضعیت حاصلخیزی خاک  با استفاده از IFI و ارائه راهکارهای مناسب  برای مدیریت خاک می­باشد. در این راستا 128 نمونه مرکب خاک از مزرعه پژوهشی ایستگاه گلدشت (شهرستان آمل-مازندران) برای اندازه­گیری برخی از ویژگی­های مهم فیزیکی و شیمیایی موثر بر کیفیت خاک تهیه گردید. سپس از منطق فازی برای رتبه­بندی کیفی ویژگی­های خاک، از تجزیه به مولفه اصلی برای وزن­دهی این ویژگی­ها و در نهایت با استفاده از مفهوم شاخص تلفیقی باروری، تلفیق ویژگی­های مورد بررسی، انجام شد. نتایج نشان می­دهد که مقدار شاخص تلفیقی باروری در این اراضی از 03/0 تا 20/0 در نوسان است. با استفاده از نقشه­های شاخص تلفیقی، باروری مزرعه مورد نظر به چهار گروه تقسیم گردید. در مقادیر پایین شاخص تلفیقی باروری (کیفیت حاصلخیزی پایین) pH، فسفر قابل استفاده، کربن­آلی و به دنبال آن نیتروژن کل کمتر از حدود بحرانی آن­ها برای رشد برنج است و در مقادیر بالای شاخص تلفیقی باروری، محدودیت کربن­آلی و نیتروژن کل وجود دارد. کمبود کربن ­آلی در کل کرت­های مورد بررسی می­تواند بر حاصلخیزی خاک (نقش حیاتی در نگهداری و آزادسازی عناصر غذایی) و خصوصیات فیزیکی خاک (بهبود ساختمان خاک، تخلخل، نگهداری آب) ثاثیر انکارناپذیر دارد. یافته­های ما نشان می­دهد که استفاده از شاخص­های تلفیقی خاک، علاوه بر نشان دادن محدودیت­های موثر بر کشت محصول زراعی می­تواند با ترکیب تمام خصوصیت­های موثر بر رشدگیاه،  نمای بهتری از مدیریت تغذیه در اراضی شالیزاری ارائه کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Paddy Soil Fertility Using Integrated Fertility Index

نویسندگان [English]

  • maryam Shakouri 1
  • Shahram MahmoudSoltani 2
  • Mohammad Taghi Karbalai agha molki 3
  • Mahmoud Shabanpour 4
  • Ali Poorsafar Tabalvandani 5
1 Laboratory Officer of Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, rice research institute of Iran, Agricultural research, education and extension organization
3 3- Assistant Professor, Rice research institute of Iran
4 SoilAssociate professor, Soil Science Department, College of Agricultural Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
5 Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Amol, Iran
چکیده [English]

The rapid growth in world population and its consequent increasing food demand require a scientific approach to paddy field productivity. To further increase rice production, the best solution is enhancing the rice yields per unit area. There are numerous integrated indices that can clarify the soil conditions and fertility characteristics, in which the integrated fertility index (IFI) is more practical. Therefore, the current study will explore soil fertility status of paddy field using IFI equation, and more broadly to issue suitable solutions for paddy soil management. This study was undertaken at Goldasht research station of the rice research institute of Iran-Amol. One hundred and twenty-eight paddy soil composite samples of plowing layer (depths of 0 to 30 cm) with a constant interval were collected to analyze for some physical and chemical properties based on rice soil requirements. Fuzzy logic theory, Principal component analysis (PCA) and IFI concepts were used for quantitative ranking of qualitative soil characters, weighing of soil properties and integration of studied soil characters, respectively. The results indicated that IFI values varied from 0.03 to 0.20. The studied paddy fields were divided into 4 individual parts through IFI values mapping method. At lower values of IFI (low soil fertility), pH, available P, OC and less broadly total N were lower than their critical levels for proper rice growth and development. Interestingly at higher values of IFI, OC and total N limitation still existed. It can be concluded that organic carbon limitation in all studied plots had negative and unavoidable effects on not only paddy soil fertility status (a vital role for sorption and desorption of soil nutrients), but also soil physical characters (enhancing soil structure, porosity, and water retention). The findings of current study also showed that the integrated fertility indices not only can show the most important limitations for rice production but also can issue the effective solutions to remediate these limitations. Key words: Rice, soil fertility, integrated fertility index, fuzzy logic, geostatistics

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • rice
  • Soil fertility
  • integrated fertility index
  • Fuzzy logic
  • Geostatistics
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