اثر شوری و کم‌آبی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گیاه شورزیست کوشیا (Kochia Scoparia L.) در شرایط آب و هوایی گرم و خشک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز. اهواز. ایران

2 استادیار گروه آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز. اهواز. ایران

3 استاد گروه آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز. اهواز. ایران

4 عضو هیات علمی مرکز ملی تحقیقات شوری یزد. یزد. ایران

چکیده

کوشیا یکی از گیاهان بسیار مقاوم به شوری و خشکی است که می­توان از آن در تولید علوفه برای دام­ها در شرایط عدم دسترسی به منابع آب و خاک مطلوب و در مناطق دارای آب و خاک شور بهره برد. در این راستا مطالعه­ای با هدف بررسی عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد کوشیا در شرایط تنش شوری و کم­آبی انجام شد. کرت­های اصلی شامل سطوح شوری آب کارون (با شوری متوسط 5/2 دسی زیمنس بر متر)، 10، 15 و 20 دسی زیمنس بر متر و کرت­های فرعی شامل سه سطح آبیاری 100، 75 و 50 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه بودند. صفات مورد مطالعه وزن تر کل اندام هوایی، وزن تر و خشک برگ و ساقه، وزن تر و خشک یک بوته و ارتفاع بوته بود. نتایج نشان داد که سطوح تنش شوری اعمال شده تأثیر معنی­داری در سطح احتمال یک درصد بر صفت­های مورد مطالعه داشتند. همچنین تیمارهای مختلف آبیاری تأثیر معنی­داری بر کلیه صفات مورد مطالعه داشتند. در مقایسه اثرات اصلی شوری و کم­آبی به صورت جداگانه، تیمارهای شاهد شوری (آب کارون) و آبیاری کامل به ترتیب با تولید 52 و 49 تن علوفه تر در هکتار از نظر کلیه صفات مورد مطالعه نسبت به تیمار­های تحت تنش دارای برتری بودند. اثر متقابل تنش­های شوری و کم­آبی بر روی وزن تر یک بوته، وزن تر و خشک برگ در سطح احتمال پنج درصد و بر روی ارتفاع بوته گیاه در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی­دار شد و بر روی دیگر صفات مورد مطالعه تأثیر معنی­داری نداشت. کوشیا در شرایط مناسب و تحت تنش شدید شوری و کم­آبی توانست به ترتیب 57 و 34 تن در هکتار علوفه تر تولید کند. نتایج نشان داد بین کلیه صفات مورد مطالعه شامل؛ وزن تر کل، وزن تر و خشک یک بوته، وزن تر و خشک برگ، وزن تر و خشک ساقه، ارتفاع، تعداد شاخه‌های فرعی و قطر ساقه، همبستگی مثبت و معناداری را نشان دادند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Salinity and Water Deficit on Yield and Yield Components of Kochia Scoparia L. in Hot and Dry Weather Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Sadegh Mansoory 1
  • Mona Golabi 2
  • Saeed Broumand Nasab 3
  • Massoumeh Salehi 4
1 Master Student of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Irrigation and Drainage Department, Faculty of Water Sciences Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
3 Professor of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Ahvaz. Iran
4 Member of National Salinity Research Center of Yazd. Yazd. Iran.
چکیده [English]

Kochia is one of the most salt and drought tolerance plants that can be used in forage production for livestock in the absence of suitable water and soil resources. This study was conducted to evaluate the yield and yield components of Kochia under salinity and water stress condition. The main plots included salinity levels of Karoon water (2.5), 10, 15 and 20 dS/m, and subplots included three irrigation levels; 100, 75 and 50% of the crop water requirement. The studied traits were weight of the aerial part of the plant, fresh and dry weight of leaf and stem, fresh and dry weight of a bush and plant height. Results showed that the salinity stress had a significant effect on the proposed traits at 1% level. Also, different irrigation treatments had a significant effect on the studied traits. Individual effects of salinity and deficit irrigation stresses showed that the control treatments including salinity (Karoon water) and full irrigation (100% water requirement) produced 52 and 49 tons of fresh forage per hectare, respectively, which were superior among stress treatments in terms of all traits measured in the research. The interaction effect of salinity and drought stresses on fresh weight of one plant, fresh weight of leaf and leaf dry weight were significant at 5% level, on plant height were significant at 1% level, and on the other traits were not significant. Kochia plant under favorable conditions and under severe salinity and drought stresses could produce 57 and 34 tons per hectare fresh fodder respectively. Finally, the correlation among all traits were evaluated. The results showed that the all proposed traits including; total weight of the fresh plant, fresh and dry weight of one plant, dry and fresh weight of leaf and stem, plant height, stem diameter and the numbers of branches showed a positive and significant correlation with the salinity and drought stresses.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drain water
  • Forage palnt of Kochia
  • Halophyte
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