ارزیابی کمّی و پهنه‌بندی پراکنش مکانی شاخص کیفیت خاک در بخشی از اراضی خشک و نیمه‌خشک غرب ایران (مطالعه موردی: منطقه کَنِ ‌سرخ، استان ایلام)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی‌ارشد علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران

3 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت منابع خاک گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

آگاهی از ظرفیت خاک­ها برای بهره­برداری از آن‌ها در قالب انواع استفاده­های اصلی در اکوسیستم­های کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی مستلزم شناخت دقیق ویژگی­های فیزیکوشیمیایی و زیستی خاک می­باشد که تضمین کننده استفاده پایدار از اراضی می­باشد. لذا این تحقیق به منظور ارزیابی کیفیت خاک با استفاده از مدل‌های کمّی در اراضی کَنِ‌ سرخ شهرستان مهران به عنوان بخشی از اراضی خشک و نیمه‌خشک ایران در استان ایلام انجام شد. نمونه‌های خاک از عمق صفر تا 30 سانتی‌متری و متوسط وزنی عمق 30 تا 100 سانتی‌متری خاکرخ برداشت گردید. ویژگی­های فیزیکوشیمیایی بر اساس روش­های استاندارد اندازه‌گیری شد. با استفاده از روش تجزیه به مؤلفه‌های اصلی (PCA)، از مجموع 16 ویژگی خاک (TDS)، بر اساس میزان ارزش ویژه و ضریب همبستگی، 8 ویژگی به عنوان حداقل ویژگی‌های مؤثر بر کیفیت خاک (MDS) انتخاب گردید. سپس با استفاده از دو مدل شاخص کیفیت تجمعی (IQI) و شاخص کیفیت نمورو (NQI) و هر کدام در دو مجموعه‌ی TDS و MDS ارزیابی کیفیت خاک‌ انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که خاک­های منطقه در نمونه‌های سطحی دارای کلاس کیفیت متوسط و نمونه‌های متوسط وزنی عمق 30 تا100سانتی‌متری خاکرخ‌ها دارای کیفیت ضعیف به همراه محدودیت شدید می‌باشند. طبق نتایج مهم‌ترین عوامل محدودکننده کیفیت خاک کمبود ماده آلی، درصد بالای کربنات کلسیم، گچ، سنگریزه و شوری خاک بود. ضریب تبیین (R2) برای نمونه‌های سطحی و متوسط عمقی بین دو مجموعه TDS و MDS در دو مدل IQI و NQI به ترتیب 79/0 و 79/0، 95/0 و 94/0 بود که نشان‌دهنده قابل اطمینان بودن استفاده از مجموعه MDS به ‌جای TDS در هر دو مدل می­باشد. بنابراین استفاده از مؤثرترین ویژگی­های خاک در مطالعات ارزیابی کیفیت خاک ضمن کاهش زمان مطالعات خاک‌شناسی زمینه صرفه اقتصادی در بحث پایش و بهره­برداری پایدار از اراضی کشاورزی را فراهم می­نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Quantitative Evaluation and Zoning of Spatial Distribution of Soil Quality Index in Some Parts of Arid and Semi-Arid Lands of Western Iran (Case Study: Kane Sorkh Region, Ilam Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmood Rostaminia 1
  • Nasim Nouri 2
  • Ali Keshavarzi 3
  • Asghar Rahmani 4
1 Assistant professor, Water and Soil Science Department, College of Agriculture, Ilam University, ilam, Iran
2 Ms.c Student Science and soil Engineering Department, Ilam University,Ilam, Iran,
3 Assistant professor, Science and soil Engineering Department, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Tehran University, Kraj, Iran,
4 Ph.D Student of Soil Resources Management, Science and soil Engineering Department, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Tehran University, Kraj, Iran,
چکیده [English]

Knowledge of the soils capacity to utilize them in the form of different major uses in agricultural ecosystems and natural resources requires the accurate recognition of the physico-chemical and biological properties of the soil, ensuring the sustainable use of the lands. Therefore, this research was conducted to evaluate the soil quality using quantitative models in the Kane Sorkh lands of Mehran as a part of arid and semi-arid lands of Ilam province (Iran). Soil samples were taken from the depth of 0-30 cm and weighted average for the depths of 30-100 cm of the soil profile. Physicochemical properties were measured based on the standard methods. Using principal component analysis (PCA), among a total 16 soil characteristics (TDS), eight properties were selected based on the eigen values and the correlation coefficient as the least properties affecting soil quality (MDS). Then, soil quality assessment was performed using two models of integrated quality index (IQI), Nemoro Quality Index (NQI), and each in two sets of TDS and MDS. The results showed that the top layer (0-30 cm) have a moderate quality class and the sub layer (30-100 cm of the profiles) have poor quality with severe constraints. According to the results, the most important factors limiting soil quality were organic matter deficiency, high percentage of calcium carbonate, gypsum, gravel and soil salinity. Determination coefficients (R2) for the top and sub-layer samples between the two TDS and MDS sets in both IQI and NQI models were 0.79 and 0.79, 0.95 and 0.94, respectively, indicating the reliability of using MDS set instead of TDS in both models. Therefore, the use of most effective soil properties in the soil quality assessment studies is not only time consuming but also it is cost-effective for sustainable monitoring of agricultural land use.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Integrated Quality Index
  • Minimum Data Set
  • Nemoro Quality Index
  • Total Data Set
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