ارزیابی خطر آلودگی منابع آب و خاک کشور به آرسنیک

نوع مقاله: یادداشت تحقیقاتی

نویسندگان

گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران.

چکیده

آرسنیک شبه فلزی است که برای گیاهان، حیوانات، میکروارگانیسم‎ها و انسان سمی است. سازمان بهداشت جهانی حد مجاز آرسنیک در آب آشامیدنی را μg/l 10 و منابع مختلف این حد را در خاک mg/kg20 بیان کرده‎اند. غلظت آرسنیک در آب‎ و خاک‎ نقاط مختلف ایران (نقاطی با غلظت بیش از حد مجاز) به ترتیب بین μg/l840-10 و mg/kg2/1775-1/23 گزارش شده است. از جمله منابع آلاینده، می‎توان به وجود معادن طلا و مس ( به‎ویژه منطقه تکاب و کرمان) و سازند آتش‌فشانی ارومیه-دختر که حاوی انواع فلزات سنگین و خطرناک می‎باشد، اشاره کرد. اکثر معادن ایران بر روی این سازند واقع شده‎اند و استفاده از روش‎های قدیمی استخراج در معادن و فرسودگی تجهیزات بر شدت آلودگی افزوده است. علاوه بر این‎، کاربرد آفت‎کش‎ها و حشره‎کش‎ها و دیگر نهاده‎های کشاورزی عامل ورود آرسنیک به منابع آب و خاک است. با استفاده از تنوع ژنتیکی گیاهان (گیاهان مقاوم به آرسنیک)، پاک‌سازی محیط‎های آلوده و با افزایش غلظت عناصری مانند آهن، منگنز، فسفات، گوگرد و سیلسیم در محیط رشد گیاه می‎توان از قابلیت دسترسی گیاهان به آرسنیک به‎ویژه در برنج تا حدود زیادی کاست. استفاده از تجهیزات مدرن در امر استخراج معادن می‎تواند در زمینه آلودگی محیط‌زیست راهگشا باشد. وضعیت آلودگی آب‎های سطحی و زیرسطحی به آرسنیک در 13 استان کشور نشان از جدی بودن تهدید آرسنیک برای سلامت مردم بوده و این امر تصفیه آب در این مناطق آلوده را الزام‎آور می‎کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Risk Assessment of Contamination of the Country's Soil and Water Resources with Arsenic

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nader Khadem Moghadam Igdelou
  • Ahmad Golchin
department of soil science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Arsenic is a metalloid that is toxic to plants, animals, microorganisms, and humans. WHO has set the permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water at 10 μg/l and various literatures have reported this limit for the soil to be 20 mg/kg. The concentration of arsenic in water and soil at different parts of Iran (areas with concentrations higher than the permissible limit) have been reported to be 10-840 μg/l and 23.1-1775.2 mg/kg, respectively. The major sources of arsenic contamination in Iran are gold and copper mines (especially Takab and Kerman areas) and Urmia-Dokhtar volcanic formation, which contain various heavy and toxic metals. The most mines of Iran are located on this formation and the use of old mining techniques and equipment has increased the severity of the contamination. In addition, the use of pesticides, insecticides, and other agricultural inputs has led the entry of arsenic into these resources. Using the genetic diversity of plants (plants resistant to arsenic), remediation of arsenic contaminated environments and increasing the concentrations of plant nutrients such as iron, manganese, phosphate, sulfur, and silicon in the soil or growth medium, can greatly reduce the concentration of arsenic in plant tissues, especially in rice. The use of modern equipment in mining can be useful to reduce environmental pollution. Contamination of surface and subsurface water to arsenic in 13 provinces of the country indicates the serious threat of arsenic to people's health and this makes decontamination of water in these areas compulsory.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • drinking water
  • permissible limit
  • rice
  • skin cancer
  • Urmia-Dokhtar formation
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