اثر متقابل تنش آبی و کود بر عملکرد محصول و بهره‌وری آب گندم در شرایط شور

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان آذربایجان شرقی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تبریز،

چکیده

در این پژوهش اثر متقابل تنش رطوبتی در مراحل مختلف رشد و مصرف کودهای نیتروژن و پتاسیم در شرایط شور بر عملکرد محصول و بهره­وری آب گندم بررسی ‌گردید. این مطالعه در قالب طرح کرت خرد شده بر پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با پنج تیمار آبیاری به­عنوان کرت اصلی، چهار تیمار کودی به­عنوان کرت فرعی و در چهار تکرار به مدت سه سال (1390-1393) در منطقه خسروشاه استان آذربایجان شرقی انجام شد. تیمارهای آبیاری شامل آبیاری در تمام مراحل رشد (I1)، قطع آب در مرحله ساقه رفتن (I2)، قطع آب در مرحله گل­دهی (I3)، قطع آب در مرحله شیری شدن (I4) و قطع آب در دو مرحله شیری و خمیری شدن (I5) بود. تیمارهای کودی عبارت بودند از: توصیه کودی منطقه (F1)، نیتروژن و پتاسیم 30 درصد بیشتر از توصیه (F2)، نیتروژن و پتاسیم 30 درصد کمتر از توصیه (F3) و نیتروژن 30 درصد کمتر و پتاسیم به اندازه‌ی توصیه منطقه (F4). نتایج نشان داد اختلاف عملکرد دانه بین تیمار آبیاری I3 و بقیه‌ی تیمارها معنی‌دار بوده و تیمار I1 با 2865 کیلوگرم بر هکتار بیشترین و تیمار I3 با 2028 کیلوگرم بر هکتار کمترین عملکرد را داشتند. از نظر بهره­وری آب اختلاف بین تیمارهای آبیاری معنی‌دار بوده و تیمار I5 با متوسط 42/1 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب بیشترین و تیمار I3 با 71/0 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب کمترین بهره­وری را به خود اختصاص دادند. از نظر عملکرد بیولوژیک و بهره­وری آب براساس عملکرد بیولوژیک در بین تیمارهای کودی تیمار F3 کمترین عملکرد را داشت. از نظر عملکرد دانه، بهره­وری آب بر پایه عملکرد دانه، میزان پروتئین دانه و غلظت عناصر دانه اختلاف بین تیمارهای کودی معنی­دار نبود. در شرایط محدودیت آب و شوری محیط ریشه که عملکرد را محدود می­کند، حذف آبیاری­های مراحل شیری و خمیری و مصرف نیتروژن و پتاسیم به مقدار توصیه شده برای گندم در منطقه قابل توصیه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Interaction Effect of Water Stress and Fertilizer on Yield and Water Productivity of Wheat in Saline Condition

نویسنده [English]

  • Ajdar Onnabi Milani
Soil and Water Research Department, East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

In this study, the interaction effect of water stress at different growth stages and NK fertilizer application on yield and water productivity of wheat was investigated in a saline condition. This experiment was conducted in a split plot design, based on a completely randomized block with five irrigation treatments (as main plots) and four fertilizer treatments (as sub plots) with 4 replications in Khosrowshah region of East Azerbaijan province for 3 years (2011-2014). Irrigation treatments comprised of full irrigation (I1), irrigation cut at stage of stem elongation (I2), Irrigation cut at flowering stage (I3), irrigation cut at milk stage (I4) and irrigation cut at milk and dough stage (I5). Fertilizer treatments comprised of N- and K-fertilizer application based on the local recommendation (F1), 30% more than the recommended rate (F2), 30% lower than the recommended rate (F3) and 30% reduction only in N-fertilizer recommended rate (F4). Results revealed that there was a significant difference between I3 and other treatments. Treatments I1 and I3 with 2865 and 2028 kgha-1 had the highest and lowest grain yield, respectively. There was significant differences among the treatments in terms of water productivity. I5 with 1.42 kgm-3 and I3 with 0.71 kgm-3 had the highest and the lowest water productivity (WP) among treatments, respectively. Among fertilizer treatments, F3 had the lowest biomass and WP in terms of biomass yield, whereas there was no significant difference among the other treatments. There was no significant differences among the fertilizer treatments in terms of grain yield, WP, protein and seed nutrients contents (NPK). Based on the obtained results, in the case of limited yield production due to water scarcity and salinity stress, eliminating late season irrigation at milk and dough stages and also application of N and K fertilizer at the recommended rate are suggested.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Deficit irrigation
  • nitrogen
  • potassium
  • Saline stress
  • Yield response factor
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