ارزیابی شاخص‌های تنش خشکی در کم آبیاری قطره‌ای کلزا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران

2 مربی پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران

3 محقق، بخش تحقیقات اقتصادی، اجتماعی و ترویج کشاورزی ، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی و ارزیابی شاخص­های تنش خشکی در روش آبیاری قطره­ای نواری بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دانه، عملکرد روغن، درصد روغن دانه و کارآیی مصرف آب دانه، آزمایشی در دو سال زراعی 90-1389 و 91-1390 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی بهبهان اجرا گردید. آزمایش به صـورت کرت‌های یک‌بار خـــــرد شده در قالب بلـوک­های کامل تصادفی با 4 تکــرار اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل مقدار آب در آبیاری قطره­ای نواری در چهار سطح 50، 75، 100 و 125 درصد نیاز آبی و فاکتور فرعی شامل رقم در دو سطح هیبرید Hyola 401 و رقم RGS003 بود. مقایسه میانگین عملکرد دانه در اثرات متقابل آبیاری و رقم نشان داد تیمار 100 درصد نیاز آبی و رقم Hyola 401 با عملکرد 2/3161 کیلوگرم در هکتار به دلیل مصرف کم­تر آب نسبت به تیمار 125 درصد نیاز آبی، برترین تیمار بود. میانگین آب مصرفی در دو سال اجرای آزمایش در تیمارهای 50، 75، 100 و 125 درصد نیاز آبی به ترتیب معادل 8/1958، 1/2938، 6/3902 و 9/4896 مترمکعب در هکتار بود. نتایج ضریب همبستگی پیرسون نشان داد با افزایش وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه و روغن دانه افزایش و کارایی مصرف آب دانه کاهش می­یابد. به دلیل کم بودن مقادیر شاخص­های SSI و TOL در هیبرید Hyola 401 نسبت به رقم RGS003 و نیز بیش­تر بودن مقادیر شاخص­های STI، MP و GMP در هیبرید فوق نسبت به رقم مزبور می‌توان هیبرید Hyola 401 را از نظر تنش خشکی به عنوان تیمار برتر معرفی نمود. یکسان بودن روند تغییرات شاخص­های STI، MP و GMP در تیمارهای تنش 50 و 75 درصد نیاز آبی موجب شد تا این شاخص­ها قابلیت انتخاب معرفی تیمار مقاوم به تنش خشکی را به خود اختصاص دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Drought Stress Indices in Canola under Deficit Drip Irrigation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nader Salamati 1
  • Amirkhosro Danaie 2
  • Vahid Yaaghoobi 3
1 Research Assistant Professor of Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ahvaz, Iran.
2 Member of Scientific Board, Seed and Plant lmprovement Department, Khuzestan. Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Researcher of Department Research Extension and Social, Khuzestan. Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

An experiment was conducted to evaluate drought stress indices in a deficit drip irrigation system on yield and grain yield components, oil yield, seed oil percentage and water use efficiency of canola in two years of cultivation (2010-2011 and 2011-20120 at Behbahan Agricultural Research Station. The experiment was carried out as split plots in randomized complete block design with 4 replications. The main factor included water content in drip irrigation in four levels of 50, 75, 100 and 125% of crop water requirement and a sub factor including Hyola 401 hybrid and RGS003 cultivar. The comparison of the mean grain yield for irrigation and cultivar interactions showed that Hyola 401 at 100% water requirement with 3161.2 kg ha-1 yield was superior related to 125% water requirement due to less water consumption. The averages water consumption of the 2-years experiment were 1958.8, 2938.1, 3902.6 and 4896.9 m3/ha in 50, 75, 100 and 125% treatments, respectively. The results of Pearson correlation coefficient indicated by increasing the weight of 1000 seeds, the grain yield and seed oil yields are increased and the water use efficiency is reduced. The low values of SSI and TOL indices and also the higher values of STI, MP and GMP indices in Hyola hybrids compared to RGS003 cultivars introduced Hyola 401 hybrid as a superior treatment in terms of drought stress. The identical trend of changes in STI, MP and GMP indices in 50 and 75% water stress treatments caused these indices to be suitable for introducing drought resistant treatments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water
  • Variety
  • Evapotranspiration
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