تاثیر بیوچارهای تولید شده از بقایای گیاهی (هرس درختان و کاه و کلش) بر برخی شاخص‌های میکروبیولوژیکی در خاک‌های آهکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری دانشگاه ارومیه و استادیار گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهیدچمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران.

2 استاد، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران.

3 دانشیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر بیوچار ضایعات هرس درختان سیب و کلش گندم بر معدنی شدن کربن خاک و برخی شاخص­های میکروبیولوژیکی، آزمایش انکوباسیون به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی با 3 فاکتور: 1. نوع بیوچار (هرس شاخ و برگ سیب (AB) و  کاه و کلش گندم (SB) برای آزمایش معدنی­شدن کربن و (ضایعات هرس سیب (AB)، ضایعات هرس انگور (GB) و کاه و کلش گندم (SB) برای آزمایش اندازه­گیری ویژگی­های میکروبیولوژیکی، 2. دمای تولید بیوچار (350 و 500 درجه سلسیوس) و 3. نوع خاک (با ماده آلی پایین (1) و ماده آلی بالا (2)) با سه تکرار اجرا گردید. برای اجرای آزمایش ابتدا مقدار 2 درصد (وزنی/وزنی) از بیوچارها به خاک­ها افزوده، سپس برای بررسی معدنی شدن­کربن در زمان­های مختلف انکوباسیون، مقدار تنفس در بیوچارهای AB و SB اندازه­گیری گردید و داده­های حاصل به معادله سنتیکی مرتبه اول برازش داده شدند و در پایان دوره انکوباسیون (96 روز) برخی شاخص­های میکروبیولوژیکی نیز اندازه­گیری گردیدند. نتایج نشان داد، بیشترین پتانسیل معدنی­ شدن کربن (C0) در تیمار AB-350 در خاک 2 و کمترین مقدار آن در خاک 1 بود. مقدار معدنی­شدن کربن، تنفس باکتریایی (BR)، تنفس برانگیخته با سوبسترا (SIR)، کربن زیست توده میکروبی (MBC) و فسفر زیست توده میکروبی (MBP) در تیمارهای بیوچار تولید شده در دمای 350 درجه سلسیوس بیشتر از بیوچارهای تولیدی در دمای 500 درجه سلسیوس بود. همچنین مقدار شاخص­های میکروبی اندازه­گیری شده در خاک 2 با مقدار ماده آلی بالا بیشتر از خاک 1 بود. مقدار BR در بیوچار ضایعات هرس سیب، هرس انگور و کاه و کلش گندم تولید شده در دمای 350 درجه­سانتی­گراد در مقایسه با شاهد به ترتیب 75/1، 24/1 و 27/2 برابر بیشتر بود. مطالعه بطور واضح نشان می­دهد که استفاده از بیوچار­های تولید شده در دمای پایین به خصوص بیوچار SB سبب بهبود کیفیت خاک می­شود. به­طور کلی، دمای پیرولیز، نوع بیوچار و نوع خاک فاکتورهای کلیدی تأثیرگذار بر شاخص­های میکروبی بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Biochar Produced from Plant Residues (Pruning Waste of Trees and Straw) on Some of the Microbiological Indices in Calcareous Soils

نویسندگان [English]

  • Neda Moradi 1
  • MirHassan Rasouli-Sadaghiani 2
  • Ebrahim Sepehr 3
1 Ph.D. Graduate of Soil Science, Urmia University and Assistant Prof., Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
3 Associate, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of biochar on soil carbon mineralization and some of the microbiological indices, an incubation experiment was conducted as a factorial in a completely randomized design with 3 factors: 1. biochar type (apple pruning wastes (AB) and wheat straw (SB) for mineralization) and (apple pruning wastes (AB), grape pruning wastes (GB) and wheat straw (SB) for microbial indices), 2. biochar production temperature (350 and 500 °C) and 3. Soil type (with low organic matter (1) and high organic matter (2)) in three replications. To carry out the experiment, biochars were added to the soils at 2% by weight, and the mixtures were incubated for 90 days under standard laboratory conditions (25±2 °C). Unamended soils (without biochars) were also considered in the experiment as the controls. Respiration values were measured for carbon mineralization at different times in AB and SB and data were fitted to the first order equation and at the end of the incubation period (96 days) some microbiological indices were measured. The results showed that the highest and the lowest carbon mineralization potential (C0) was obtained in the treatment of AB-350 in soil 2 and in soil 1, respectively. The amount of carbon mineralization, bacterial respiration (BR), substrate-induced respiration (SIR), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP) in the biochar treatments produced at 350 °C were more than the ones produced at 500 °C. Also, the value of biological indicators measured in soil 2 (with high organic matter content) was more than the ones in soil 1 (with low organic matter content). The amount of BR in AB, GB and SB produced at 350 °C were 1.75, 1.24 and 2.27 times greater than the ones in control treatment, respectively. This study provide clear evidence that the application of low temperature biochars (especially SB) improve soil quality. Generally, pyrolysis temperature, biochar type and soil type were the key factors affecting biological indices.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biochar
  • biological indices
  • carbon mineralization
  • pruning residues
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