بهینه‌سازی الگوی کشت و منابع آب در سطوح مختلف آبیاری برای مناطق گرم و خشک (مطالعه‌ی موردی، دشت-های دهلران استان ایلام)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه مهندسی آب، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک، ایران

2 دانش آموخته دکتری آبیاری زهکشی، گروه مهندسی آب، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک، ایران

3 استادیار،گروه مهندسی آب و خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ایلام،ایران

چکیده

 این پژوهش با هدف صرفه­جویی در منابع آب با رویکرد تکنیک­های کم­آبیاری با استفاده از مدل برنامه­ریزی غیرخطی با اعمال بهینه­سازی الگوی کشت موجود در هشت مزرعه مشاهداتی برای یازده محصول آبی غالب، شامل گندم زمستانه، جو، کلزا، چغندرقند پاییزه، ذرت دانه‌ای، سورگوم، گوجه فرنگی، پیاز و سیب زمینی، باقلا سبز و هندوانه پاییزه در اراضی پایاب سد مخزنی دویرج دهلران واقع در جنوب غرب کشور انجام گردید. کاهش عملکرد و سود خالص حاصل از کشت هر محصول برای سطوح نیاز آبی 50%،60%،70%،80%،90% و 100% در طول فصل رشد محاسبه گردید. تابع هدف برای بیشینه نمودن سود خالص با محدودیت‌های مختلف از جمله ثابت بودن سطح زیر کشت، برای سناریو­های الگوی کشت موجود، سیاست‌های وزارت جهاد کشاورزی و الگوی پیشنهادی محاسبه گردید. نتایج مقایسه سناریو‌ها نشان داد در شرایط آبیاری کامل، سود خالص الگوی کشت وزارت کشاورزی نسبت به الگوی کشت موجود، 33/1% و برای 90% و80% نیاز آبی به‎ترتیب 19/1%، 05/1% افزایش گردید، در این شرایط به‌ترتیب 18% و 34% از منابع آب صرفه‌جویی گردید. همچنین نتایج  الگوی کشت پیشنهادی محصولات گندم، کلزا، چغندر پاییزه و ذرت دانه‌ای نشان داد که سود خالص سناریوهای نیاز آبی 60% ،70 %،80% و90% به‌ترتیب 4/14%، 6/33%، 54%، 7/74%  نسبت به شرایط الگوی کشت موجود افزایش یافت و به میزان60%، 49%، 35% و 19%، از منابع آب صرفه‌جویی گردید. استفاده از مدل برنامه­ریزی غیرخطی نشان داد با بهینه­سازی الگوی کشت همراه با تکنیک کم آبیاری علاوه بر افزایش سود خالص وصرفه­جویی مصرف آب کشاورزی نسبت به شرایط کشت موجود، می‌تواند در حفظ و پایداری منابع آب سطحی و زیرزمینی موثر واقع شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Optimization of Cropping Pattern and Water Resources at Different Levels of Irrigation for Hot and Dry Areas (Case study: Dehloran Plains, Ilam Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Najarchi 1
  • hamidreza shekari 2
  • reza jafarinia 1
  • Shahroo Mokhtari 1
  • Hamzehali Alizadeh 3
1 Assistant Professor ,Department of Water Engineering, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak,Iran
2 Graduated PhD of Department of Water Engineering, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak,Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Water and Soil Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilam,Iran
چکیده [English]

The objective of this research was to save water resources, using nonlinear programming model to optimize the crop pattern under full and deficit irrigation techniques in eight observation fields for eleven predominant irrigated crops, including winter wheat, barley, rapeseed, autumn sugar beet, corn, sorghum, tomato, onion and potatoes, bean and autumn watermelon in the downstream lands of Doyraj Dehloran reservoir located in the southwest of Iran. The yield reduction and net income of each crop were calculated for 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100% of water requirements during the growing season. The objective function for maximizing net profit with different constraints including constant cultivated area was determined for the existing cropping pattern, the policies of the Ministry of Agriculture Jihad and the proposed pattern. In the case of full irrigation, the results showed that the net profit of the Ministry of Agriculture Jihad cropping pattern was increased 1.33, 1.19 and 1.05% for 100, 90 and 80% of water requirement, respectively. Under deficit irrigation conditions (90 and 80%), water resources are saved 18 and 34%, respectively. The proposed cropping pattern, including four crops of wheat, canola, autumn sugar beet and grain corn increased the net profit of 60, 70, 80 and 90% of the crop water requirement treatments by 14.4, 33.6, 54 and 74.7%, respectively, as compared to the existing cropping pattern. In the proposed deficit irrigation treatments, the water resources were saved 60%, 49%, 35% and 19%, respectively. The results of nonlinear programing model showed that the optimization of cropping pattern with deficit irrigation technique, not only increases the net profits, but also it can be effective in conserving surface and ground water resources.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hot and dry climate
  • nonlinear programming
  • Water use efficiency
  • Application efficiency
  • irrigation levels
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