تأثیر شاخص‌های توپوگرافی و خصوصیات خاک بر عملکرد گندم دیم در اراضی لسی منطقه توشن، شمال ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

3 پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، گروه علوم خاک

4 دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

توپوگرافی با اثرگذاری بر کیفیت خاک، می­تواند تولید محصولات کشاورزی را به شدت تحت تأثیر قرار دهد. به منظور ارزیابی تغییرات مکانی عملکرد گندم و ایجاد مدل­های رگرسیونی بین عملکرد محصول و خصوصیات خاک و توپوگرافی، منطقه توشن در استان گلستان انتخاب گردید. نمونه­برداری گندم و خاک به صورت تصادفی از 100 نقطه از موقعیت­های مختلف شیب صورت پذیرفت. تجزیه فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک­ها و اندازه­گیری مؤلفه­های عملکرد گندم انجام شد. مدل رقومی ارتفاع تهیه شد و ویژگی­های پستی و بلندی محاسبه گردید. بیشترین عملکرد کل و بیشترین عملکرد دانه به ترتیب به میزان 53/14 و 41/4 تن در هکتار در اراضی با شیب کمتر از 10 درصد به­دست آمد که اختلاف معنی­داری با طبقه پرشیب نشان می­دهد. بیشترین و کمترین عملکرد کل با مقادیر میانگین 82/15 و 68/5 تن در هکتار به ترتیب مربوط به موقعیت­های پنجه شیب و شانه شیب بود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه از موقعیت­های پای شیب و پنجه شیب به دست آمد. مقادیر میانگین عملکرد دانه در پای شیب برابر با 61/4 و در پنجه شیب 66/4 تن در هکتار بود. انحنای سطح زمین و شاخص خیسی ارتباط قابل ملاحظه­ای با عملکرد محصول گندم داشتند. بر طبق معادله­های تجزیه رگرسیون شاخص­های پستی و بلندی به خوبی قادر به توجیه تغییرپذیری مکانی عملکرد بودند که این امر نشان دهنده اهمیت این عوامل از طریق تأثیر بر توزیع رطوبت در فرآیند تولید محصول در منطقه مورد مطالعه است. افزایش مؤلفه­های عملکرد گندم در این مطالعه که در قسمت­های پایین شیب مشهود است را می­توان به افزایش عمق خاک و آب قابل استفاده گیاه و تجمع بیشتر مواد آلی و عناصر غذائی نظیر نیتروژن و پتاسیم به واسطه فرآیند فرسایش و تجمع آن در این موقعیت­ها مربوط دانست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Topography Indices and Soil Characteristics on Rainfed Wheat Yield in Loess Lands of Toshan Area, Northern Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ajami 1
  • Ahmad Heidari 1
  • Farhad Khormali 2
  • Manoochehr Gorji 3
  • Shamsolah Ayoubi 4
1 University of Tehran
2 University of Gorgan
3 University of Tehran
4 Isfahan University of Technology
چکیده [English]

Topography by affecting soil quality can significantly affect the production of agricultural products. This study was conducted in Toshan area of Golestan province to evaluate the spatial variation of wheat production and to create regression models between the crop, soil, and topography characteristics. Wheat and soil sampling from different slope positions were collected randomly from 100 points. Soil physical-chemical analyses and wheat yield parameter measurements were carried out. The digital elevation model was prepared, and topographic attributes were calculated. The results showed that the highest total yield (14.53 t/ha) and grain yield (4.41 t/ha) were observed in <10% slope class, which showed a significant difference compared to steeper slopes. The highest (15.82 t/ha) and the lowest (5.68 t/ha) total mean yields were corresponded to paw slope and shoulder slope, respectively. The highest grain yield was obtained from the foot slope and paw slope. The amounts of mean grain yield were 4.61 t/ha in foot slope and 4.66 t/ha in paw slope. Curvature and wetness index had a remarkable relationship with wheat yield. According to the regression analyses, topography indexes have been able to explain the spatial variability of yield, indicating the importance of these factors' impact on water distribution in yield production process in the studied area. Increasing yield productions in low slope positions in this study was probably due to increasing in soil depth and plant available water, as well as accumulation of organic matter and nutrient elements such as nitrogen and potassium due to deposition of eroded materials in these positions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Slope position
  • Wetness index
  • Yield prediction
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