تامین نیاز آبی گلخانه توسط آب شیرین تولیدی تقطیرگر خورشیدی به روش چگالشی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، ایران

2 گروه آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، ایران

چکیده

در این تحقیق، یک گلخانه متصل به یک دستگاه تقطیرگر خورشیدی برای نمک‌زدایی از آب شور و آبیاری گیاهان در دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز ساخته شد. بسترهای شن، شن‌-باگاس-‌‌پرلایت و باگاس-پرلایت به عنوان چگالنده هوای گرم و مرطوب مخزن تقطیرگر در گلخانه استفاده شدند. با اندازه‌گیری دمای هوا، درصد رطوبت نسبی و سرعت جریان هوا در مخزن تقطیرگر، دمای اطراف لوله‌ها و رطوبت در بسترها، تولید آب شیرین تقطیرگر به صورت روزانه محاسبه گردید. برای برآورد تبخیر‌-تعرق مرجع گلخانه از روش فائو پنمن مانتیث استفاده شد. هدف تحقیق حاضر محاسبه درصد تبخیرتعرق تامین شده به وسیله آب شیرین تولیدی به روش چگالشی در این گلخانه و انتخاب بستر چگالنده بهتر از لحاظ توزیع رطوبت و دما است. اندازه‌گیری‌های روزانه و دوره‌ای تولید آب شیرین برای هر بستر با تبخیر-تعرق روزانه و دوره‌ای گلخانه مقایسه شدند. میانگین تولید آب شیرین در یک مترمربع از تقطیرگر خورشیدی در ماه‌های اردیبهشت، خرداد، تیر و مرداد به‌ترتیب برابر 23/1، 97/1، 2 و 97/1 کیلوگرم در روز محاسبه شدند و به طور میانگین 75/1 کیلوگرم در روز به‌دست آمد. مقدار میانگین تبخیر-تعرق گلخانه در محل مورد مطالعه 08/4 میلی‌متر در روز برآورد شد. آب تولیدی در بسترهای شن، شن‌-باگاس-پرلایت و باگاس-پرلایت به‌ترتیب 94/0، 79/0 و 82/0 برابر تبخیر-تعرق درون گلخانه محاسبه شدند. به‌دلیل پایین‌تر بودن دمای بستر شن و تولید آب بیشتر، بستر شن چگالنده بهتری نسبت به دو بستر دیگر است. مقدار تبخیر-تعرق از تاریخ اول اردیبهشت تا هفتم مرداد 1397، 2/408 میلی‌متر به‌دست آمد که 85% آن توسط تقطیرگر با تولید 5/2799 کیلوگرم برای مساحت 1/8 مترمربع بستر (بدون در نظرگرفتن نوع آن) تامین گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Supply of Greenhouse Water Requirement from Solar Distiller Freshwater Production Using Condensation Method

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leila Ghassemi 1
  • Saeed BoroomandNasab 2
  • Abdolrahim Hooshmand 2
1 irrigation and drainage department, water science engineering faculty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwatukee, Iran
2 irrigation and drainage department, water science engineering faculty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

In this research, a greenhouse connected to a solar distiller device was constructed for the desalination of saline water and irrigation at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Sand, sand-bagasse-perlite, and bagasse-perlite beds were used in the greenhouse as a condenser of hot and humid air of the distiller tank. By measuring air temperature, relative humidity, air flow velocity in the distiller tank, temperature around the pipes and moisture in the beds, daily production of freshwater from the distiller was calculated. The FAO Penman-Montieth method was used to estimate greenhouse reference evapotranspiration. The purpose of this research was to estimate the percentage of supplied evapotranspiration in the greenhouse by produced freshwater from the condensation method and to select the proper condenser bed in terms of moisture and temperature distribution. Daily and periodic measurements of freshwater produced by each bed were compared to daily and periodic evapotranspiration of the greenhouse. The average amount of freshwater produced per square meter by the solar distiller was calculated to be 1.23, 1.97, 2, and 1.97 kg/day in May, June, July, and August, respectively, with the average of 1.75 kg/day during the whole period. The average evapotranspiration amount in the greenhouse was estimated to be 4.08 millimeter per day. Production water in sand, sand-bagasse-perlite and bagasse-perlite beds was calculated to be 0.94, 0.79, and 0.82 times of the evapotranspiration rate within the greenhouse, respectively. Due to the lower temperature of the sand bed and the higher production of water, the sand bed is a better condenser than the other two beds. Evapotranspiration from April 21 to July 29, 2018, was estimated to be 408.2 millimeters, which %85 of it was supplied by a distiller with a production of 2799.5 kilograms for an area of 8.1 square meters of bed (without considering its type).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Condenser
  • FAO Penman-Monteith method
  • Production of freshwater
  • Reference Evapotranspiration
  • Solar distiller
Al-Ismaili, A. M., and Jayasuriya, H. (2016). Seawater greenhouse in Oman: A sustainable technique for freshwater conservation and production. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 54, 653-664.

Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., and Smith, M. (1998). Guidelines for computing crop water requirements-FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56, FAO-Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome (http://www. fao. org/docrep) ARPAV (2000), La caratterizzazione climatica della Regione Veneto, Quaderni per. Geophysics, 156, 178.

Alnaser, W. E., and Barakat, A. (2000). Use of condensed water vapor from the atmosphere for irrigation in Bahrain. Applied Energy, 65(1-4), 3-18.

Bait, O., and Si–Ameur, M. (2018). Enhanced heat and mass transfer in solar stills using nanofluids: a review. Solar Energy, 170, 694-722.

Bettaque, R., and Naegel, L. C. A. (1999). An integrated solar desalination system in controlled-environment greenhouses. Sunworld, 23(1), 18-20.

Boroomandnasab, S. and Yousefi, B. (2016). Condensation Irrigation (Solar Technologies Drainage Water and Irrigation). Ahwaz: Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz Press, 98. (In Farsi)

Bourouni, K., Chaibi, M. T., and Al-Taee, A. (2011). Water desalination by humidification and dehumidification of air, seawater greenhouse process. Solar energy conservation and photoenergy systems, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. EOLSS.

Boutiere, H. (1972). Culture en zone aride et serre-distilllateurs solaires. COMPLES Bulletin, (1972).

Chaibi, M. T. (2003a). Greenhouse systems with integrated water desalination for arid areas based on solar energy (Vol. 389).Doctoral thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Alnarp

Chaibi, M. T. (2013b). Thermal solar desalination technologies for small-scale irrigation. American Journal of Energy Research, 1(2), 25-32.

Dilmaghani, M. R., and Hemmaty, S. (2011). Effect of different substrates on nutrients content, yield and quality of strawberry cv. Selva in soilless culture. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture, 2(3), 1-8.

Dumka, P., and Mishra, D. R. (2018). Energy and exergy analysis of conventional and modified solar still integrated with sand bed earth: Study of heat and mass transfer. Desalination, 437, 15-25.

Gorjian, S., and Ghobadian, B. (2015). Solar desalination: A sustainable solution to water crisis in Iran. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 48, 571-584.

Gustafsson, A.M., and Lindblom, J. (2001). Underground Condensation of Humid Air – a Solar Driven System for Irrigation and Drainage-Water Production. Master’s Thesis. 2001: 140. Luleǻ University of Technology. Sweden.

Hausherr, B., and Ruess, K. (1993). Seawater desalination and irrigation with moist air. IngenieurbÜro Ruess und Hausherr, Switzerland.

Hosseini, A., Banakar, A. and Gorjian, S. (2018). Development and performance evaluation of an active solar distillation system integrated with a vacume-type heat exchanger. Desalination, 435, 45-59.

Kabeel, A. E., and Almagar, A. M. (2013, November). Seawater greenhouse in desalination and economics. In Seventeenth International Water Technology Conference, IWTC17.

Kabeel, A. E., Omara, Z. M., and Essa, F. A. (2014). Improving the performance of solar still by using nanofluids and providing vacuum. Energy conversion and management, 86, 268-274.

Karaca, C., Tezcan, A., Büyüktaş, K., Büyüktaş, D., & Baştuğ, R. (2018). Equations Developed to Estimate Evapotranspiration in Greenhouses. Yuzuncu Yıl University Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 28(4), 482-489.

Lindblom, J. (2012). Condensation irrigation: a combined system for desalination and irrigation (Doctoral dissertation, Luleå tekniska universitet).

Lindblom, J., and Nordell, B. (2012). Experimental Study of Underground Irrigation by Condensation of Humid Air in Perforated Pipes. Luleå tekniska universitet.

Lindblom, J., and Nordell, B. (2006). Subsurface irrigation by condensation of humid air. Sustainable Irrigation Management, Technologies and Policies, 96, 181.

Lindblom, J., and Nordell, B. (2007). Underground condensation of humid air for drinking water production and subsurface irrigation. Desalination, 203(1-3), 417-434.

Manchanda, H., and Kumar, M. (2017). Performance analysis of single basin solar distillation cum drying unit with parabolic reflector. Desalination, 416, 1-9.

Mashaly, A. F., Alazba, A. A., Al-Awaadh, A. M., and Mattar, M. A. (2015). Area determination of solar desalination system for irrigating crops in greenhouses using different quality feed water. Agricultural Water Management, 154, 1-10. March 6, 2015, from http:// www.elsevier.com/locate/agwat.

Moazed, H., Ghaemi, A. A., and Rafiee, M. R. (2014). Evaluation of several reference evapotranspiration methods: a comparitive study of greenhouse and outdoor conditions. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology. Transactions of Civil Engineering, 38(C2), 421-437.

Ni, G., Zandavi, S. H., Javid, S. M., Boriskina, S. V., Cooper, T. A., and Chen, G. (2018). A salt-rejecting floating solar still for low-cost desalination. Energy & Environmental Science, 11(6), 1510-1519.

Okati, V., Farsad, S. and Behzadmehr, A. (2018). Numerical analysis of an integrated desalination unit using humidification – dehumidification and subsurface condensation processes. Desalination, 433, 172-185.

Okati, V., Farsad, S. and Behzadmehr, A. (2016). Analysis of a solar desalinator (humidification – dehumidification cycle) including a compound system consisting of a solar humidifier and subsurface condenser using DoE. Desalination, 397, 9-21.

Pal, P., Nayak, A. K., and Dev, R. (2018). A modified double-slope basin-type solar distiller: experimental and enviro-economic study. Evergreen, 5(1), 52-61.

Poblete, R., and Painemal, O. (2018). Recovering water from brine: Assessments of feasibility and applicability to irrigation processes. Desalination, 439, 17-24.

Reca, J., Trillo, C., Sánchez, J. A., Martínez, J., and Valera, D. (2018). Optimization model for on-farm irrigation management of Mediterranean greenhouse crops using desalinated and saline water from different sources. Agricultural Systems.

Rafeei, M. R., Moazed, H., and Boroomandnasab, A. G. S. (2016). FAO-56 Method for Estimating Evapotranspiration and Crop Coefficients of Eggplant in Greenhouse and Outdoor Conditions.

Salter, P. J., and Williams, J. B. (1965). The influence of texture on the moisture characteristics of soils: II. Available‐water capacity and moisture release characteristics. Journal of Soil Science, 16(2), 310-317.

Sarkamarian, F., Jouzani, G. S., and Moradi, F. (2015). Fast production of enriched biocompost from sugarcane bagasse using biotechnological process. Journal of Crop Technology, 9, 49-64. (In Farsi)

Shahabifar, M., Assari, M., Kouchakzadeh, M., and Mirlatifi, S. M. (2010). Lysimetric evaluation of common methods of calculating standard grass reference crop evapotranspiration in greenhouse. Iranian Journal of Water Research in Agriculture, 24(1), 13-19. (In Farsi)

Singh, A. K., Singh, D. B., Mallick, A., and Kumar, N. (2018). Energy matrices and efficiency analyses of solar distiller units: a review. Solar Energy, 173, 53-75.

Tiwari, G. N. and Sahota, L. (2017). Review on energy and economic efficiencies of passive and active solar distillation systems. Desalination, 401, 159-179.

Trombe, F., and Foex, M. (1961, August). Utilisation of solar still energy for simultaneous distillation of brackish water and air conditioning of hot houses in arid regions. UN Conf. On new sources of energy. In UN Conf. on New Sources of Energy.

Waller, P., and Yitayew, M. (2014). Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. Springer Verleg. 742 pages.

Yousefi, B., Boroomand-Nasab, S., Moazed, H., and Nordell, B. (2017). Condensation Irrigation Field Test: Measurements of Soil Moisture. International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research6(3), 263-268.

Yousefi, B. (2012). Application of Condensation Irrigation in desalination of saline waters and reuse in irrigation and drinking water. Thesis of Master of Science, Faculty of Water Science Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz: 65. (In Farsi)

Yousefi, B., Behzaad, M. and Boroomandnasab, S. (2010). Condensation and Distillation Irrigation. 3rd Irrigation and Drainage Network Management National Conference. 1-3 March, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz: 5. (In Farsi)

Yousefi, B., Behzaad, M., Boroomandnasab, S. and Rahmaanshaahizehaabi, M. (2011). Condensation Irrigation. 4th Iran Water Resources Management Conference. 3-4 May, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran: 7. (In Farsi)

Yousefi, B., and Boroomandnasab, S. (2015). Desalination Using the Condensation Irrigation System (A Case Study of the Research Farm of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz). Journal of Water and Wastewater, 26(3), 127-133. (In Farsi)

Yousefi, B., Boroomandnasab, S. and Chaibi, M. T. (2012). Assessment of the Performance of Condensation Irrigation System: First Results. World Rural Observation. 4(3), 14 – 17.