عنوان مقاله [English]
Prediction of bacteria transport to groundwater is very important to prevent water resources from coliform bacteria pollusion. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) in preventing the transport of Escherichia coli as an indicator coliform. For the MICCP process, the sand sample was poured into PVC tubes (with inside diameter of 4.8 and height of 14.92 cm) and incubated for 3 days in the presence of Sporosarcina pasteurii. After the stablishment of steady-state flow, 0.1 pore volume of Escherichia coli suspension (108 CFU/mL) was added to the sand column and the leaching was followed with distilled water. The column effluent was sampled in 0.1 to 5 pore volume. After leaching, the sand column was sliced into five sections (~3 cm), and the number of E. coli trapped in each slice was measured using the plate count method in EMB agar culture medium. Leaching was also carried out in control sand column. The effect of MICCP treatment and its interaction with pore volume was significant (p<0.05) on Escherichia coli count in effluent. The effect of depth and its interaction with MICCP treatment were significant (p<0.05) on E. coli residuals and bioprecipitated calcium carbonate in the column. Overall, the role of biopreciptated calcium carbonate was significant in bacteria filtration, as it decreased the sand column hydraulic conductivity and reduced the number of E. coli in column effluents.
Abu-Ashour, J., Joy, D. M., Lee, H., Whiteley, H.R. and Zelin, S. (1998). Movement of bacteria in unsaturated soil columns with macropores, Transactions of the ASAE. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 41, 1043-1050.
Achal, V., Mukherjee, A., Basu, P.C. and Reddy, M.S. (2009). Strain improvement of Sporosarcina pasteurii for enhanced urease and calcite production. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, 36(7), 981-988.
Achal, V. (2015). Production of bacteria for structural concrete. In F. Pacheco Torgal, J. A. Labrincha, M.V. Diamanti, C.P. Yu, and H.K. Lee (Eds.), Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering. P: 309-324. Dordrecht: Springer.
Al-Degs, Y., Khraisheh, M.A.M., Allen, S.J. and Ahmad, M.N. (2000). Effect of carbon surface chemistry on the removal of reactive dyes from textile effluent. Water Research, 34 (3), 927-935.
Becker, M.W., Collinsa, S.A., Metgeb, D.W., Harveyb, R.W. and Shapiro, A.M. (2004). Effect of cell physicochemical characteristics and motility on bacterial transport in groundwater. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 69, 195-213.
Cunningham, A.B., Gerlach, R., Spangler, L., Mitchell, A.C., Parks, S., and Phillips, A. (2011). Reducing the risk of well bore leakage of CO2 using engineered biomineralization barriers. Energy Procedia. Procedia, 4, 5178-5185.
Carter, M. R. and Gregorich, E. G. (2007). Soil sampling and methods of analysis. CRC press.
CLSI, 2012. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard-Eleventh Edition.CLSI document M02-A11. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
David, K.P. and Mills, A.L. (2001). Transport of Escherichia coli in sand columns with constant and changing water contents. Journal of Environmental Quality, 30, 238-245.
DeJong, J.T., Mortensen, B.M., Martinez, B.C. and Nelson, D.C. (2010). Bio‑mediated soil improvement. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 36, 197–210.
De Muynck, W., De Belie, N. and Verstraete, W. (2010). Microbial carbonate precipitation in construction materials: a review. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 36, 118–136.
Erickson, M.C., Habteselassie, M.Y., Liao, J., Webb, C.C., Mantripragada, V., Davey, L.E. and Doyle, M.P. (2014). Examination of factors for use as potential predictors of human enteric pathogen survival in soil. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 116, 335–349.
Flury, M., Flu ¨hler, H., Jury, W.A. and Lauenberger, J. (1994). Susceptibility of soils to preferential flow. Water Resources Research, 30, 1945-1954.
Fremaux, B., Prigent-Combaret, C., Delignette-Muller, M.l., Dothal, M. and Vernozy-Rozand, C. (2007). Persistence of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 in cow slurry. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 45, 55-61.
Gee, G.W. and Bauder, J.W. (1986). Particle size analysis. In: Klute, A. (Ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. ASA/SSSA Monograph 9. 2nd Ed, pp. 383‒411.
Gorospe, C.M., Han, S.H., Kim, S.G, Park, J.Y., Kang, C.H., Jeong, J.H. and So, J.S. (2013). Effects of different calcium salts on calcium carbonate crystal formation by Sporosarcina pasteurii KCTC 3558. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 18, 903–908.
Harkes, M.P., van Paassen, L.A., Booster, J.L. Whiffin, V.S., van Loosdrecht, M.C.M. (2010). Fixation and distribution of bacterial activity in sand to induce carbonate precipitation for ground reinforcement. Ecological Engineering, 36, 112–117.Jiang, G., M.J., Noonan, G.D., Buchan, and N., Smith. (2007). Transport of Escherichia coli through variably saturated sand columns and modeling approaches. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 93, 2 -20.
Kaper, J.B. and Karmali, M.A. (2008). The continuing evolution of a bacterial pathogen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(12), 4535-4536.
Klute, A. (1986). Water retention: laboratory methods. PP. 635 – 662. In: Klute, A. (Ed.) Method of Soil Analysis. Part 1: Physical and Mineralogical Methods. 2nd ed., ASA/SSSA. Monograph 9.
Lee, L.M., Soon, N.G.W., Khun, T.C. and Ling, H.S. (2012). Bio-mediated soil improvement under various concentrations of cementation reagents. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 204-208, 326-329.
Loeppert, R.H. and Suarez, D.L. (1996). Carbonates and gypsum. In: Sparks, D.L. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3, Chemical Methods. SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Madigan, M.T., Bender, K.S., Buckley, D.H., Sattley, W.M. and Stahl, D.A., 2017. Brock Biology of Microorganisms 15 edn
Massoudieh, A., Lu, N., Liang, X., Nguyen, T.H. and Ginn, T.R. (2013). Bayesian process-identification in bacteria transport in porous media. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 153, 78-91.
Morales, V.L., Parlange, J.Y. and Steenhuis, T.S. (2010). Are preferential flow paths perpetuated by microbial activity in the soil matrix, A review. Journal of Hydrology, 393(1-2), 29-36.
Mosaddeghi, M.R., Mahboubi, A.A., Zandsalimi, S., and Unc, A. (2009). Influence of organic waste type and soil structure on the bacterial filtration rates in unsaturated intact soil columns. Journal of Environmental Management, 90, 730-739.
Okwadha, G.D.O. and Li, J. (2010). Optimum conditions for microbial carbonate precipitation. Chemosphere, 81, 1143-1148.
Phillips, A. J., Gerlach, R., Lauchnor, E., Mitchell, A. C., Cunningham, A. B. and Spangler, L. (2013). Engineered applications of ureolytic biomineralization: a review. The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research, 29, 715-733.
Powelson, D.K. and Mills, A.L. (2001). Transport of Escherichia coli in sand columns with constant and changing water contents. Journal of Environmental Quality, 30, 238–245.
Qian, C., Wang, R., Cheng, L. and Wang, J. (2010). Theory of microbial carbonate precipitation and its application in restoration of cement-based materials defects. Chinese Journal of Chemistry, 28, 847—857.
Ramachandran, S.K., Ramakrishnan, V. and Bang, S.S. (2001). Remediation of concrete using micro‑organisms. ACI Materials Journal-American Concrete Institute, 98, 3-9.
Rehmann, C.R. and Soupir, M.R., (2009). Importance of interactions between the water column and the sediment for microbial concentrations in streams. Water Research, 43 (18), 4579-4589.
Rhoades, J.D. (1996). Salinity electrical conductivity and total dissolved solid.In Methods of Soil Analysis”.In: Page, A.L., Somner, C.E. and Nelson, P.W. (Eds.) Part 3. Chemical Methods. ASA/SSSA Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp: 417–436.
Rostami, k., Mahbobi, A.A., Mosaddeghi, M.R. and Safari-sanjani, A.A. (2009). The effect of calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate on transportation of Pseudomonas fluorescens through sand columns. Journal of Ecology, 50, 119-128. (In Farsi)
Safari-Sanjani, A.A., Sharifi, Z., Safari-Sanjani, M. (2011). Laboratory methods in soil microbiology. First Edition. University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamadan, (p. 457). (In Farsi)
Sepehrnia, N.A., Mahbobi, A.A., Mosaddeghi, M.R., Khoda-Karamian, Gh. R. and Safari-Sanjani, A.A. (2012). Effect of calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate on E. coli survival in fine sand mixtures. Journal of Environmental Studies, 39(62): 117-126. (In Farsi).
Sharma, A. and Ramkrishnan, R. (2016). Study on effect of microbial induced calcite precipitates on strength of fine grained soils. Perspectives in Science, 8, 198-202.
Unc, A. and Goss, M.J. (2003). Movement of faecal bacteria through the vadose zone. Water Air Soil Pollution, 149, 327-337.
Unc, A. and Goss, M.J. (2004). Transport of bacteria from manure and protection of water resources. Applied Soil Ecology, 25, 1-18.
Walkley, A. and Black, I.A. (1934). An examination of digestion method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration. Soil Science. 37: 29–38.
Whiffin, V.S., Van Paassen, L.A. and Harkes, M.P. (2007). Microbial carbonate precipitation as a soil improvement technique. Geomicrobiology Journal, 24, 417-423.