عنوان مقاله [English]
Soil enzymes are considered as a measure of soil biological status. Phosphatase enzymes (alkaline and acid) are very important because of their role in converting organic to inorganic phosphorus and improving plant nutrition. Various factors such as organic compounds and phosphate fertilizers affect the activity of these enzymes. In this study, the effect of humic acid and phosphorous (P) fertilizers onsoil rhizosphere phosphatase enzymes, active carbon and P uptake by sugarcane was investigated, conducting a greenhouse pot experiment in south west of Iran. The experiment was performed as a factorial based on complete randomized design, in three levels of P application as triple super phosphate (0, 50% and 100 % of recommended phosphorus application, 250 kg.ha-1, in the region), four humic acid treatments (three immersion levels of setts in 0, 0.3 and 0.5% solution of humic acid as well as application of 30 mg humic acid per kg soil treatment) and two harvesting time (45 and 90 days after planting). The results showed that in non-fertilized treatment, the use of humic acid (especially in the form of cuttings immersion) increased P uptake by about twice at the first harvest and by 30% at the second harvest compared to the control treatment. Improvement of P uptake in the soil with deficit P was due to changes in activated carbon in the rhizosphere and also the impact on density and activity of microorganisms and the activity of enzymes such as phosphatase, which increases the availability of P in the vicinity of the plant root. By increasing the phosphorus application, the activity of the alkaline phodphatase enzyme decreased and reached to the minimum measured value dry soil (17% Less than the control).
Aguiar, N. O., Olivares, F. L., Novotny, E. H., Dobbss, L. B., Martizez-Balmori, D., Santos-Júnior, L. G., Chagas, J. G., Façanha, A. R., and Canellas, L. P. (2013). Bioactivity of humic acids isolated from vermicomposts at different maturation stages. Plant and Soil, 362, 161–174.
Bezerra, P. S. S., Prado, R. M., and Shigaki, F. (2015). Natural phosphate and humic substances applied in Quartzipsamment and Kandiudult cultivated with Sugar Cane. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 4(2), 153-163.
Bouyoucos, G. J. (1961). Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal, 54, 464–465.
Bruna, A., Marcos, R., Amin, S., Alan, E. R., Fernando, D. A., and Paulo, S. P. (2016).Biological and morphological traits of sugarcane roots in relation to phosphorus uptake.Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 16(4), 901-915.
Canellas, L. P., and Olivares, F. L. (2014). Physiological responses to humic substances as plant growth promoter. Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture, 1:3
De Souza, G. P., de Figueiredo, C. C., and De Sousa, D. M. G. (2016). Relationships between labile soil organic carbon fractions under different soil management systems. Science Agriculture, 73(6), 535-542.
Dick, W. A., and Tabatabai, M. A. (1984). Kinetic parameters of phosphatases in soils and organic waste materials. Soil Science, 137, 7-15.
Eivazi, F., and Tabatabai, M. A. (1977). Phosphatases in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 9(3), 167-172.
Ghani, A., Dexter, M., and Perrot, K. W. (2003). Hot-water extractable carbon in soils: a sensitive measurement for determining impacts of fertilization, grazing and cultivation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 3, 1231–1243.
Gullo, M. J. M. (2007). Use of the foundation soil conditioners humic acid in sugar cane crop (Saccharum spp.). Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 2, 153-163.
Haynes, R. J. (2000). Labile organic matter as an indicator of organic matter quality in arable and pastoral soils in New Zealand. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 211–219.
Kolář, L., Kužel, S., Horáček, J., Čechová, V., Borová-Batt, J., and Peterka, J. (2009). Labile fractions of soil organic matter, their quantity and quality. Plant, Soil and Environment, 55, 245–251.
Kuo, S. (1996). Phosphorus. In D.L. Sparks (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3, chemical methods. SSSA, Madison, WI, pp. 869-920.
Loeppert, H. L., and Suarez, D. L. (1996). Carbonate and gypsum. Methods of Soil Analysis. In D. L. Sparks (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis (Part 3). (pp. 437-474). Soil Science Society of America Publishing: Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Marques Júnior, R. B., Canellas, L. P., Silva, L. G., and Olivares, F. L. (2008). Promoção de enraizamento de microtoletes de cana-de-açúcar pelo uso conjunto de substâncias húmicas e bactérias diazotróficas endofíticas. Rev Bras Ci Solo, 32, 1121–1128 (in Portuguese, with abstract in English).
Murphy, J., and Riley, J. P. (1962). A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytical Chemical Acta, 27, 31-36.
Nelson, D. W., and Sommers, L. E. (1996). Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In D. L. Sparks (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis (Part 3). (pp. 961-1010). Soil Science Society of America Publishing: Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Nunes, R. S., Lopes, A. A. C., Sousa, D. M. G., and Mendes, I. C. (2011). Management systems and the carbon and nitrogen stocks of cerrado oxisol under soybean-maize succession. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, 35, 1407-1419 (in Portuguese, with abstract in English).
Olsen, S. R, Cole, C. V., Watanabe, E. S., and Dean, L. A. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. United States Department of Agriculture Circular, 939, 1-18.
Piccolo, A. (2002). The supramolecular structure of humic substances: A novel understanding of humus chemistry and implications in soil science. Advance Agronomy, 75, 57–134.
Puglisi, E., Fragoulis, G., Del Re, A. A., Spaccini, R., Piccolo, A., Gigliotti, G., Said-Pullicino, D., and Trevisan. M. (2008). Carbon deposition in soil rhizosphere following amendments with compost and its soluble fractions, as evaluated by combined soil–plant rhizobox and reporter gene systems. Chemosphere, 73, 1292–1299.
Puglisi, E., Fragoulis, G., Ricciuti, P., Cappa, F., Spaccini, R., Piccolo, A., Trevisan, M., and Crecchio, C. (2009). Effects of a humic acid and its size-fractions on the bacterial community of soil rhizosphere under maize (Zea mays L.). Chemosphere, 77, 829–837.
Rhoades, J. D. (1996). Salinity: Electerical conductivity and total dissolved solids. In D. L. Sparks (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis (Part 3). (pp. 417-436). Soil Science Society of America Publishing: Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Šarapatka, B. (2003). Phosphatase activities (ACP, ALP) in agroecosystem soils. Doctoral thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Sharif, M. K. A., and Izhar-Ul-Haq, M. J. (2010). Extractable phosphorus as affected by humic acid application in salt affected soils. Sarhad Journal Agriculture, 26(3), 381-386.
Šmejkalová, D., and Piccolo, A. (2008). Aggregation and disaggregation of humic supramolecular assemblies by NMR diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY-NMR). Environmental Science Technology, 42, 699–706.
Stamford, N. P., Santos, C. E. R. S., and Dias, S. H. L. (2006). Rock biofertilizers with Acidithiobacillus on sugarcane yield and nutrient uptake in a Brazilian soil. Geomicrobiology Journal, 23, 261-265.
Sund, K., and Clements, H. (1974). Production of sugarcane under saline desert conditions in Iran. Unuversity of Hawaii.
Swift, R. S. (1996). Organic matter characterization. In D. L. Sparks (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis (Part 3). (pp. 1018-1020). Soil Science Society of America Publishing: Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Tabatabai, M. A., and Bremner, J. M. (1969). Use of p-nitrophenyl phosphate for assay of soil phosphatase activity. Soil Biology and Biochememistry, 1, 301-307.
Vahap Katkat, A., Çelik, H., Murat, A. T., and Asik, B. B. (2009). Effects of soil and foliar applications of humic substances on dry weight and mineral nutrients uptake of wheat under calcareous soil conditions. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3(2), 1266-1273.
Wang, R., Li, N., Guo, S., Zhang, Y., Li, R., and Jian, J. (2015). Phosphorus accumulation and sorption in calcareous soil under long-term fertilization. PLoS ONE Journal, 10(8), 7-14.
Wang, X. J., Wang, Z. Q. and Li, S. G. (1995). The effect of humic acids on the availability of phosphorus fertilizers in alkaline soils. Soil Use Manage Journal, 11, 99-102.
Weil, R., Kandikar, R., Islam, R., Stine, M. A. Gruver, J. B., and Samson-Liebig, S. E. (2003). Estimating active carbon for soil quality assessment: A simplified method for laboratory and field use. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 18(1), 3-17.
Zandonadi, D. B., Santos, M. P., Dobbss, L. B., Olivares, F. L., Canellas, L. P., Binzel, M. L., Okorokova-Facanha, A. L., and Facanha, A. R. (2010). Nitric oxide mediates humic acids-induced root development and plasma membrane H+-ATPase activation. Planta, 231, 1025–1036.