تاثیر اسید هومیک و کود فسفر بر آنزیم‌های فسفاتاز، کربن فعال و فسفر قابل استفاده در ریزوسفر گیاه نیشکر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

3 استاد، گروه علوم خاک ، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، ایران

5 استادیار، گروه شیمی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

آنزیم­های خاک می‌توانند به عنوان معیاری برای سنجش وضعیت بیولوژیکی خاک مورد استفاده قرار گیرند و در این میان آنزیم­های فسفاتاز (قلیایی و اسیدی) به دلیل نقشی که در تبدیل فسفر آلی به معدنی و بهبود تغذیه گیاه دارند از اهمیت زیادی برخوردار می­باشند. در این تحقیق، اثر کاربرد کود فسفر، اسید هومیک و زمان‌های مختلف برداشت بر آنزیم­های فسفاتاز، کربن فعال، فسفر خاک ریزوسفر گیاه نیشکر (فسفر کل و فسفر قابل استفاده) و جذب این عنصر به وسیله گیاه نیشکر در آزمایش گلدانی و در شرایط گلخانه­ای، در جنوب غربی ایران بررسی شد. در این آزمایش مصرف سطوح مختلف فسفر (0، 50 و 100 درصد توصیه کودی در منطقه معادل 250 کیلوگرم در هکتار و به صورت سوپرفسفات تریپل)، تیمارهای اسید هومیک (سه سطح غوطه ورسازی قلمه در محلول­های 0، 3/0 و 5/0 درصد اسید هومیک و تیمار خاک کاربرد kg ha-110 اسید هومیک) و دو زمان برداشت به صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که در شرایط عدم مصرف کود فسفر، استفاده از اسید هومیک (بویژه به شکل غوطه‌ور کردن قلمه) در برداشت اول جذب فسفر توسط گیاه حدود دو برابر و در برداشت دوم تا 30 درصد در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد افزایش داشت. بهبود جذب فسفر در شرایط کمبود فسفر قابل دسترس خاک به دلیل تغییرات در مقدار کربن فعال ناحیه ریزوسفر و نیز تاثیر بر تراکم و فعالیت میکروارگانیسم‌ها و فعالیت آنزیم‌هایی مانند فسفاتاز می‌باشد که قابلیت دسترسی فسفر را در مجاورت ریشه گیاه افزایش می‌دهند. با افزایش مصرف کود فسفر فعالیت آنزیم فسفاتاز قلیایی نسبت به تیمار شاهد کاهش یافت و به حداقل مقدار اندازه‌گیری شده (17% کمتر از شاهد) رسید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Humic Acid and Phosphorus Fertilizer on Phosphatase Enzymes, Active Carbon and Available Phosphorus in Sugarcane Rhizosphere

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamidreza Behravan 1
  • Reza Khorassani 2
  • Amir Fotovat 3
  • Abdolamir Moezzi 4
  • Mehdi Taghavi 5
1 PhD Student, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
5 Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Soil enzymes are considered as a measure of soil biological status. Phosphatase enzymes (alkaline and acid) are very important because of their role in converting organic to inorganic phosphorus and improving plant nutrition. Various factors such as organic compounds and phosphate fertilizers affect the activity of these enzymes. In this study, the effect of humic acid and phosphorous (P) fertilizers onsoil rhizosphere phosphatase enzymes, active carbon and P uptake by sugarcane was investigated, conducting a greenhouse pot experiment in south west of Iran. The experiment was performed as a factorial based on complete randomized design, in three levels of P application as triple super phosphate (0, 50% and 100 % of recommended phosphorus application, 250 kg.ha-1, in the region), four humic acid treatments (three immersion levels of setts in 0, 0.3 and 0.5% solution of humic acid as well as application of 30 mg humic acid per kg soil treatment) and two harvesting time (45 and 90 days after planting). The results showed that in non-fertilized treatment, the use of humic acid (especially in the form of cuttings immersion) increased P uptake by about twice at the first harvest and by 30% at the second harvest compared to the control treatment. Improvement of P uptake in the soil with deficit P was due to changes in activated carbon in the rhizosphere and also the impact on density and activity of microorganisms and the activity of enzymes such as phosphatase, which increases the availability of P in the vicinity of the plant root. By increasing the phosphorus application, the activity of the alkaline phodphatase enzyme decreased and reached to the minimum measured value dry soil (17% Less than the control).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Humic acid"
  • "phosphorus fertilizer"
  • " sugarcane"
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