تاثیر قارچ‌های میکوریزی و باکتری حل‌کننده فسفات بر رشد ذرت و جذب کادمیوم در خاک‌های آلوده شده

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد بیولوژی خاک، گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

2 استاد گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

3 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت- دانشگاه زنجان- دانشکده کشاورزی- گروه زراعت

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیرکود­های زیستی بر میزان آلودگی گیاهان به فلزات سنگین، آزمایشی در گلخانه گروه خاک­شناسی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان در سال 1394 در قالب فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی در 3 تکرار به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای مورد بررسی عبارت بودند از فاکتور اول: سطوح آلودگی خاک به کادمیوم (0، 10، 25، 50، 100 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک) و فاکتور دوم: تلقیح با قارچ­های میکوریز و باکتری حل­کننده فسفات شامل: باکتری حل­کننده­ی فسفات Pseudomonas putida، قارچ میکوریز Funneliformis mosseaeو قارچ میکوریز Rhizophagus intraradices بود. فاکتورهای مورد اندازه­گیری شامل: شاخص کلروفیل برگ، ارتفاع گیاه، وزن تر و خشک ریشه و اندام هوایی، فسفر و پتاسیم ریشه و اندام هوایی و غلظت کادمیوم در گیاه بود. نتایج حاکی از آن بود که کاربرد کودهای زیستی شاخص­‌های کلروفیل برگ، ارتفاع گیاه، وزن تر و خشک ریشه و اندام­های هوایی، فسفر و پتاسیم ریشه و اندام هوایی ذرت را نسبت به تیمار شاهد به طور معنی­داری افزایش داد. تیمار قارچ Funneliformis mosseae  و باکتری حل­کننده فسفات (M+P) توانست میزان کلروفیل برگ و ارتفاع گیاه را به ترتیب 93/11 و 89/21 درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد (بدون تلقیح) بهبود دهد. با افزایش سطوح آلودگی خاک به کادمیوم، شاخص کلروفیل برگ به­طور معنی­داری کاهش یافت. اعمال توام تیمار قارچ Funneliformis mosseae  و باکتری حل­کننده فسفر (M+P) و کادمیوم به گلدان­های حاوی ذرت توانست وزن خشک ریشه و بخش هوایی گیاه را به ترتیب 6 و 7 درصد نسبت به تیمار 100 میلی­گرم بر کیلو­گرم خاک کادمیوم افزایش دهد. به طور کلی نتایج حاکی از آن بود که تلقیح خاک با کودهای زیستی می­تواند اثرات سوء و مضر کادمیوم بر رشد و عملکرد گیاه را کاهش دهد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Mycorrhizal Fungi and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria on Corn Growth and Cadmium Uptake in Cadmium Spiked Soils

نویسندگان [English]

  • fatemeh rostami 1
  • ahmad golchin 2
  • moslem heydari 3
1 MSc of Soil Biology, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan
2 Professor of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University
3 Ph.D. student of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of bio-fertilizers on contamination rate of plants to heavy metals, a factorial experiment based on completly randomized design with three replications was carried out in greenhouse of soil science department at agriculture faculty of Zanjan University in 2015. The proposed treatments were: contamination levels of soil to cadmium (0, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg of cadmium per Kg of soil) and inoculation with bio-fertilizers including; phosphate solubilizing bacteria Pseudomonas putida, mycorhiza fungi Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus intraradices. The measured factors were leaf chlorophyll index, plant height, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, phosphorus and potassium of shoot and root and cadmium concentration in plant. The results indicated that the use of bio-fertilizers increased the leaf chlorophyll index, plant height, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, phosphorus and potassium of shoot and root significantly as compare to the control. The treatment of Funneliformis mosseae and Pseudomonas putida (M+P) could improve leaf chlorophyll index and plant height by 11.93 and 21.89 % in comparing whit control respectively. The chlorophyll index was significantly decreased by increasing cadmium levels in the soil. Simultaneous application of Funneliformis mosseae and Pseudomonas putida (M+P) and cadmium increased the shoot and root dry weight by 6 and 7 % as compared to treatment of 100 mg cadmium per Kg of soil. Totally, the results indicated that the inoculation of soil whit bio-fertilizers could reduce the harmful effects of cadmium on plants growth and yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mycorrhizal fungi
  • Phosphate solubilizing bacteria
  • Cadmium
  • Contaminated soils
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