ویژگی‌های ژئوشیمیایی برخی خاک‌های تشکیل شده بر روی سنگ‌های بازالت شمال‌غرب ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

مطالعات پیدایش و تکامل خاک مبتنی بر درک صحیح از فرآیندهای ژئوشیمیایی حاکم بر محیط­های خاک­سازی و نحوه تشکیل خاک­ها می­باشد. در این تحقیق ویژگی­های فیزیکوشیمایی و ژئوشیمیایی خاک­های تشکیل شده بر روی سنگ مادر بازالت در 6 خاکرخ منتخب در یک ردیف اقلیمی متشکل از سه اقلیم خشک (اشتهارد)، نیمه­خشک (قزوین) و نیمه­مرطوب (رودبار) مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. غلظت کل برخی عناصر در تمام افق­های خاک تعیین و با سنگ مادر مقایسه شد و نقش ترکیب ژئوشیمیایی سنگ مادر بر غلظت کل عناصر مذکور در خاک بررسی گردید. به­علاوه، الگوهای غنی­شدن-تهی­شدن و آنالیز توازن جرم عناصر با استفاده از عنصر مرجعTi  تعیین شد. عناصر مختلف الگوهای غنی­شدن-تهی­شدن متفاوتی را نشان دادند. در خاک­های منطقه خشک، نقش ماده مادری و خصوصیات لیتوژنیک در غلظت عناصر نسبت به دو منطقه دیگر بیشتر است و غلظت عناصر موجود در خاک به دلیل هوادیدگی و آبشویی کمتر خاک­ها به سنگ مادر نزدیک­تر بود. درحالی­که با حرکت به اقلیم­های مرطوب­تر، فرآیندهای خاک­سازی شدت بیشتری پیدا کرده و الگوهای غنی­شدن-تهی­شدن عناصر روند متفاوتی نشان می­دهند. توزیع برخی عناصر مانند منیزیم، کلسیم، آهن و مس بیشتر تحت تاثیر فرآیندهای خاک­سازی و برخی عناصر دیگر مانند سدیم، آلومینیوم، سیلیس، فسفر، کلر، منگنز، مولیبدن، کادمیوم و سرب متاثر از مواد مادری هستند. به طور کلی بخشی از تفاوت مشاهده شده در تغییرات غلظت عناصر را می­توان به ماهیت شیمیایی و قابلیت تحرک بالای برخی عناصر، و بخش دیگر را به سرعت هوادیدگی ماده مادری تحت تاثیر تغییرات زیست اقلیمی نسبت داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Geochemical properties of some soils developed on basalt rocks of North-West Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Raheb
  • Ahmad Heidari
  • Shahla Mahmoodi
چکیده [English]

Soil genesis and evolution studies are based on well understanding of geochemical processes involved in pedogenic processes and formation of soil. Parent materials are main factors controlling soil properties in arid and semiarid regions. In this study, physicochemical and geochemical properties of 6 selected soil profiles developed on basalt rocks along arid (Eshtehard), semiarid (Qazvin) and semihumid (Roodbar) climosequence representing three different climatic zones were investigated. The total content of Si, Al, Fe, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Mn, P, Zn, Cl, Cu, Pb, Mo and Cd of all soil horizons were compared to parent rocks to reveal the role geochemical composition of rock on total concentrations of these elements in soil. Enrichment/depletion patterns of elements were assessed using Ti as reference element. The studied elements exhibited different enrichment/depletion patterns. In soils of arid region, the role of parent material and lithogenic properties in concentration of elements were greater than other areas and the content of these elements due to lower weathering and leaching were closer to the parent rock. While, in more humid climates pedogenic processes were more intensive and enrichment/depletion patterns of elements showed states that are more progressive. Distribution of some studied elements such as magnesium, calcium, iron and copper were significantly affected by soil forming process and the parent material affected some other elements such as sodium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, chlorine, manganese, molybdenum, cadmium and lead. In general, part of the difference in the concentrations of elements can be related to their chemical nature and the mobility of some elements, and some part to rapid weathering of parent materials affected by bioclimatological changes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arid climate
  • enrichment factor
  • Pedogenic processes
  • Pedogenic factors
  • Soil genesis
Abbaslou, H., Martin, F., Abtahi, A. and Moore, F. (2014). Trace element concentrations and background values in the arid soils of Hormozgan province of southern Iran. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 60(8), 1125-1143.

Agard, P., Omrani, J., Jolivet, L., Whitchurch, H., Vrielynck, B., Spakman, W., Monie, P., Meyer, B. and Wortel, R. (2011). Zagros orogeny: Asubduction-dominated process. Geological Magazine, 148, 692-725

Alloway, B. J. (1990). The origins of heavy metals in soils. In B. J. Alloway (Ed.), Heavy Metals in Soils. (pp. 29-39). John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.

Baker, D. E. and Senft, J. P. (1995). Coper. In B. J. Alloway (Ed.), Heavy Metals in Soils. 2nd edition (pp. 179-205). John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.

Blaser, P., Zimmermann, S., Luster, J. and Shotyk, W. (2000). Critical examination of trace element enrichments and depletions in soils: As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in Swiss forest soils. Science of Total Environment, 249, 257-280.

Bluth, G. J. S. and Kump, L. R. (1994). Lithologic and climatologic controls of river chemistry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 58(10), 2341-2359.

Buol, S. W., Southard, R. J., Graham, R. C. and McDaniel, P. A. (2011) Soil Genesis and Classification (6th ed.). New York: Wiley.

Caner, L., Radtke, L. M., Vignol-Lelarge, M. L., Inda, A. V., Bortoluzzi, E. C. and Mexias, A. S. (2014). Basalt and rhyo-dacite weathering and soil clay formation under subtropical climate in southern Brazil. Geoderma, 235-236, 100-112.

Caspari, T., Baumler, R., Norbu, C. and Baillie, I. (2006). Geochemical investigation of soils developed in different lithologies in Bhutan, Eastern Himalayas. Geoderma, 136, 436-458.

Carter, M. R. and Gregorich, E. G. (2008) Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis (2nd ed.). Canadian Society of Soil Science.

Dessert, C., Dupre, B., Gaillardet, J., Francois, L. M. and Allegre, C. J. (2003). Basalt weathering laws and the impact of basalt weathering on the global carbon cycle. Chemical Geology, 202(3-4), 257-273.

Han, F. X. (2007) Biogeochemistry of trace elements in arid environment. New York (NY):

Springer-Verlag.

Gomes, P. C., Fontes, M. P., Da Silva, A. G., Mendoca, E. S. and Netto, A. R. (2001). Selectivity sequence and competitive adsorption of heavy metal by Brazilian soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 48, 794-752.

Hardy, M. and Cornu, S. (2006). Location of natural trace elements in silty soils using particlesize fractionation. Geoderma, 133, 295-308.

Hasani Nekou, A., Karimi, A., Haghnia, G. H. and  Mahmoudy Gharaie, M. H. (2014). Effect of parent materials and pedogenic processes on distribution of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni in the residual soils of Binaloud zone, Western Mashhad. Journal of Water and Soil Science, 18(67), 123-134. (In Farsi)

He, Z. L., Zhang, M. K., Calvert, D. V., Stoffella, P. J., Yong, X. E. and Yu, S. (2004). Transport of heavy metals in surface runoff from vegetable and citrus fields. Soil Science Society of American Journal, Academic research library.

Kabata-Pendias, A. and Pendias, H. (2001) Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. 3rd ed., USA: CRC Press.

Kiekens, L. (1995). Zinc, heavy metals in soils. In B. J. Alloway (Ed.), Heavy Metals in Soils. 2nd edition (pp. 284-306). John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.

Luo, W., Wang, T. Y., Lu, J. P., Shi, Y., Zheng, Y., Xing, Y. and Wu, G. (2007). Landscape ecology of the Guanting Reservoir, Beijing, China: Multivariate and geostatistical analyses of metals in soils. Environment Pollution, 146, 567-576.

Maftoun, M., Karimian, N., Moshiri, F. (2002). Sorption characteristics of copper (П) in selected calcareous soils of Iran in relation to soil properties. Commun. Soil Science Plant Analysis, 33, 2279-2289.

Mico, C., Recatala, L. and Sanchez, M. J. (2006). Assessing heavy metal sources in agricultural soils of a European Mediterranean area by multivariate analysis. Chemosphere, 65, 863-872.

Nael, M., Khademi, H., Jalalian, A., Schulin, R., Kalbasi, M. and Sotohian, F. (2009). Effect of geo-pedological conditions on the distribution and chemical speciation of selected trace elements in forest soils of Western Alborz, Iran. Geoderma, 152, 157-170.

Nael, M., Jalalian, A., Khademi, H., Kalbasi, M., Sotohian, F. and Schulin, R. (2010). Effect of geopedological conditions on content and distribution of selected major and trace elements in forest soils of Fuman-Masule region. Journal of Water and Soil Science, 14(51), 71-86. (In Farsi)

Nameroff, T., Balistrieri, L. and Murray, J. (2002). Suboxic trace metal geochemistry in the eastern tropic north Pacific. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 66(7), 1139-1158.

Navidi, N. and Abtahi, A. (2001). Effects of climate and topography in forest soils genesis

Khirrod Kenar of Nowshahr in Mazandaran province. Journal of Soil and Water Science, 15, 299-316. (In Farsi)

Nosratipoor, Sh., Nael, M., Sheklabadi, M. and Sepahigero, A. A. (2015). The effect of parent materials and soil evolution on the content and depth distribution of selected heavy metals in soils of Kabudarahang region, Hamedan. Journal of Water and Soil Conservation, 22(2), 1-20. (In Farsi)

Ortiz, M., Simon, C., Dorronsoro, F., Marti, N. and Garcia, I. (2002). Soil evolution over the quaternary period in a mediterranean climate (SE Spain). Catena, 48, 131-148.

Sahandi, M. R. and Soheili, M. (2005) Geological map of Iran: scale 1:1000000. Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran. (In Farsi)

Schaetzl, R. and Anderson, S. (2005). Soils, genesis and geomorphology. Cambridge University Press.

Self, S., Widdowson, M., Thordarson, T. and Jay, A. E. (2006). Volatile fluxes during flood basalt eruptions and potential effects on the global environment: a Deccan perspective. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 248(1-2), 518-532.

Sharma, D. B., Mukhopadhyay, S. S. and Arora, H. (2005). Total and DTPA-extractable micronutrients in relation to pedogenesis in some Alfisols of Punjab, India. Soil Science, 170(7), 559-572.

Shaw, J. N., West, L. T., Bosch, D. D., Truman, C. C. and Leigh, D. S. (2004). Parent material influence on soil distribution and genesis in a Paleudult and Kandiudult complex, southeastern USA. Catena, 57, 157-174.

Soil Survey Staff. (2014) Keys to Soil Taxonomy (12nd ed.). United States Department of Agriculture. NRCS.

Sparks, D. L. (1996) Method of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical Methods. American Society of Agronomy.

Tazikeh, H., Pashaei Aval, A., Khormali, F. and Ayoubi, Sh. (2013). he origin and morphology of soils formed on limestone rocks in Aq- Emam area (northeast Golestan province). Journal of Water and Soil Conservation, 20(6), 1-24. (In Farsi)

Thanachit, S., Suddhiprakarn, A., Kheoruenromne, I. and Gilkes, R. J. (2006). The geochemistry of soils on a catena on basalt at Khon Buri, northeast Thailand. Geoderma, 135, 81-96.

Vingiani, S., Terribile, F., Meunier, A. and Petit, S. (2010). Weathering of basaltic pebbles in a red soil from Sardinia: A microsite approach for the identification of secondary mineral phases. Catena, 83, 96-106.

USDA-NRCS. (2012a) Field Book for Describing and Sampling Soils. Version 3.0, National Soil Survey Center.

USDA-NRCS. (2012b) jNSM: Java Newhall Simulation Model. Version 1.6.0. User guide-part 1. National Soil Survey Center.

Zhou, Q., Wang, X. Liang, R. and Wu, Y. (2003). Effects of cadmium and mixed heavy metals on rice growth in Liaoning, China. Soil and Sediment Contamination, 12, 851-864.