ارزیابی کمی کیفیت خاک در کاربری‌های مختلف در بخشی از اراضی جنوب شرق قزوین

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دانشگاه تهران

2 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه تهران

3 فارغ التحصیل دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

یکی از ابزارهای مفید برای بررسی وضعیت مدیریت خاک در کاربری­های مختلف، ارزیابی کیفیت خاک است و استفاده از شاخص­های کمی، یکی از مناسب­ترین روش­های تعیین و مقایسه کیفیت خاک­ها می­باشد. در این تحقیق شاخص­ها و روش­های انتخاب ویژگی­های مؤثر برای ارزیابی کیفیت خاک در کاربری­های مختلف مورد مقایسه قرار گرفتند. 17 ویژگی فیزیکی، شیمیایی و زیستی خاک در پنج کاربری باغ، مرتع، زراعت آبی، زراعت دیم و اراضی رها شده در سه کلاس شیب کمتر از 2، 7-5 و 11-9 درصد، در جنوب شرق قزوین به عنوان مجموعه کل داده­های  Total Data Set)) انتخاب شدند. سپس با استفاده از روش تجزیه مولفه­های اصلی (Principle Component Analysis)، هفت ویژگی به عنوان دسته داده­های حداقل (Minimum data set) انتخاب شدند. با استفاده از دو شاخص کیفیت تجمعی (Integrated quality index) و شاخص کیفیت نمرو (Nemero quality index) در این دو مجموعه داده، کیفیت خاک ارزیابی شد. نتایج به دست آمده نشان داد که کاربری­های باغ و مرتع به ترتیب بیشترین مقدار شاخص­ کیفیت تجمعی و شاخص کیفیت نمرو را در هر دو مجموعه داده به خود اختصاص می­دهند اما کاربری­های زراعت آبی، زراعت دیم و اراضی رها شده دارای کمترین کیفیت خاک هستند و تفاوت محسوسی با دو کاربری باغ و مرتع دارند. ضریب تبیین بین دو مجموعه داده برای شاخص کیفیت تجمعی و شاخص کیفیت نمرو به ترتیب برابر 95/0 و 88/0 است که بیانگر قابل اطمینان بودن استفاده از دسته داده­های حداقل به جای مجموعه کل داده­ها و همچنین کارائی بهتر شاخص کیفیت تجمعی برای ارزیابی کیفیت خاک منطقه مورد مطالعه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Quantitative soil quality assessment in different land uses at some Parts of south eastern of Qazvin

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jalil Kakeh 1
  • Manoochehr Gorji 2
  • Alireza Alimohammadi 3
چکیده [English]

Assessment of soil quality is one of the most useful tools for evaluation the soil management condition and different land uses. Quantity indices of soil quality are most suitable methods for determination and comparison of soils quality. In this study soil quality indices and selection methods of effective soil properties were compared for evaluating the soil quality in different land uses. Seventeen soil physical, chemical and biological properties were selected as total data set (TDS) at five different land uses including orchard, rangeland, irrigated farming, dry land farming and unutilized lands, in slope classes of 0-2, 5-7, and 9-11 %, at some parts of south eastern of Qazvin (Iran). Then, 7 properties selected as minimum data set (MDS) using Principle Component Analysis (PCA). Soil quality was evaluated by integrated quality index (IQI) and nemero quality index (NQI) in two set of soil properties including MDS and TDS. The results showed that orchard and rangeland had the highest IQI and NQI in both data sets, respectively, however irrigated farming, dry land farming and unutilized lands have the least IQI and NQI in both data sets, respectively and have significant different compared to orchard and rangeland. Correlation coefficient between TDS and MDS was 0.95 and 0.88 for IQI and NQI, respectively, indicating the reliability of the MDS instead of TDS, and showed that the IQI offers better results for evaluating the soil quality in this case study.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Integrated Quality Index
  • Nemero quality index
  • Total Data Set
  • Minimum Data Set
  • land uses
Alexander, M. 1982. Most probable number method for microbial populations. In: Page AL., Miller RH., Keeney DR. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis Part2. Amer. Soc. for Agron, Madison USA: 815–820.

Anderson, E., & John, P. 1982. Soil respiration. Methods of Soil Analysis Part2. Amer. Soc. for Agron, Madison USA: 831–870.

Andrews, S.S., Karlen, D.L., Mitchell, J.P., 2002a. A comparison of soil quality indexing methods for vegetable production systems in Northern California. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 90, 25–45.

Andrews, S.S., Mitchell, J.P., Mancinelli, R., Karlen, K.L., Hartz, T.K., Horwath, W.R., Pettygrove, G.S., Scow, K.M., Munk, D.S., 2002b. On-farm assessment of soil quality in California's central valley. Agron. J. 94, 12–23.

Aparicio, V., and Costa, J.L. 2007. Soil quality indicators under continuous cropping systems in the Argentinean pampas. Soil and Tillage Research, 96: 155-165.

Blake GR., Hart age KH, 1986. Bulk density. In: Klute, A. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part1: physical and Mineralogical Methods, 2nd ed. Agronomy Monograph. 9: 363–382.

Bone, J., Barraclough, D., Eggleton, P., Head, M., Jones, D., Voulvoulis, N. 2012. Prioritising soil quality assessment through the screening of sites: the use of publicly collected data. Land Degradation & Development.

Brejda JJ., Moorman TB., Karlan DL. And Dao TH. 2000. Identification of regional siol quality factors and indicators: I. Central and Southern High Plains, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 64:2115-2124.

Doran, J.W. and T.B. Parkin. 1994. Defining and assessing soil quality. In J.W. Doran, D.C. Coleman, D.F. Bezdicek, and B.A. Stewart (ed.) Defining soil quality for a sustainable environment. Soil Science Society of America Special Publication no. 35, Madison, WI.

Doran, J.W., and A.J. Jones, (Eds.), 1996. Methods for Assessing Soil Quality. Soil Science Society of America Special Publication, vol. 49. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.

Emami, H., Astaraei, A.R., Fotovat, A. 2014. Evaluating The Effect of Organic Matter on Soil Quality Score Functions. Journal of Water and Soil. Vol. 28, No.3: 565-574. (In Farsi).

Gee G.W., and Bauder J.M. 1986. Partical-size analysis. In Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, physical and Mineralogical Methods. Agronomy Monogroph No. 9 (2nd edition), American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. Pp 383-411.

Ghaemi, M., Astaraei, A.R., Sanaei nezhad, S.H., Nasiri mahalati,M., Emami,H. 2013. Evaluating Chemical Quality of Several soil cultivation wheat-corn Using of soil quality Models at some Parts of Southeast Mashhad area.  Soil Reserch. Vol. 27, No.4: 463-473. (In Farsi).

Govaerts, B., K.D. Sayre, and J. Deckers, 2006. A minimum data set for soil quality assessment of wheat and maize cropping in the highlands of Mexico. Soil & Tillage Research, 87:163–174.

Han, W.J., Wu, Q.T., 1994. A primary approach on the quantitative assessment of soil quality. Chinese J. Soil Sci. 25, 245–247 (In Chinese with English Abstract).

Jenkinson, DS., Brookes, PC. & Powelson, DS. 2004. Measuring soil microbial biomass. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. (36):5-7.

Karlen, D.L., Andrews, S.S., Wienhold, B.J., Zobeck, T.M. 2008. Soil quality assessment: Past, present and future. Electronic Journal of Integrative Biosciences 6: 3-14.

Karlen, D.L., Gardner, J.C., Rosek, M.J., 1998. A soil quality framework for evaluating the impact of CRP. Journal of Production Agriculture 11, 56 – 60.

Kemper W.D., and Rosenau R.C. 1986. Aggregate stability and size distribution. In: Klute A (ed). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part a: physical and Mineralogical Methods. American Society of Agronomy. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. Pp 425–442.

Klute, A., & Dirksen, C. 1986. Hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity: Laboratory methods. Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1—physical and Mineralogical Methods (methodsofsoilan1): 687-734.

Lal R., Kimble J. and Follett R.F. 1997. Pedospheric processes and the carbon cycle. p. 1–8. In: Lal, R., W.H. Blum, C.Valentine, B.A. (eds.) Stewart. Methods for Assessment of Soil Degradation. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Marzaioli, R., D’Ascoli, R., De Pascale, R.A., Rutigliano, F.A. 2010. Soil quality in a Mediterranean area of Southern Italy as related to different land use types. Applied Soil Ecology, 44(3), 205-212.

Nelson BW and Sommers LE, 1986. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. Pp:539 - 577. In: Page AL, Miller RH and Keeney DR (Eds). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Soil Sci Soc of Am, Madison WI.

Olsen, SR., & Sommers, L. 1982. phosohorus. In: AL. Page: Methods of soil analysis, Agron. No. 9, Part2: Chemical and microbiological properties, (ed.) Am. Soc.Agron., Madison, WI, USA.: 403-430.

Page A.L., Miller R.H., and Keeney D.R. 1982. Methods of Soil Analysis, part2, chemical and microbiological properties. American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Soil Science Society of Aamerica, Madison, WI.

Qi, Y., Darilek, J.L., Huang, B., Zhao, Y., Sun, W., Gu, Z. 2009. Evaluating soil quality indices in an agricultural region of Jiangsu Province, China. Geoderma, 149(3–4), 325-334.

Qin, M.Z., Zhao, J., 2000. Strategies for sustainable use and characteristics of soil quality changes in urban-rural marginal area: a case study of Kaifeng. Acta Geogr. Sin. 55, 545–554 (In Chinese with English abstract).

Rahmanipour, F., Bahrami, H.A., Bandarabadi, S.R., Fereidouni, Z. 2013. Quantitative soil quality assessment and its spatial distribution at some Parts of agricultural lands in Qazvin Province. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research. 43(1), 1-8. (In Farsi).

Rahmanipour, F., Marzaioli, R., Bahrami, H.A., Fereidouni, Z., Bandarabadi, S.R. 2014. Assessment of soil quality indices in agricultural lands of Qazvin Province, Iran. Ecological Indicators, 40(0), 19-26.

Reynolds, W.D., Drury, C.F., Tan, C.S., Fox, C.A., Yang, X.M. 2009. Use of indicators and pore volume-function characteristics to quantify soil physical quality. Geoderma, 152(3–4), 252-263.

Rezaei SA, Gilkes RJ, Andrews SS. 2006. A minimum data set for assessing soil quality in rangelands.Geoderma136: 229–234.

Shahab, H., Emami, H., Haghnia, Gh. 2012. Evaluating the relationship between the Models to determine soil quality and sustainable indices in agricultural and range lands of southern Mashhad area. . Soil Reserch. Vol. 26, No.3: 227-234. (In Farsi).

Shahab, H., Emami, H., Haghnia, Gh., Karimi, A. 2011. Determination the Optimal Range of Pore Volume Distribution by Using of Soil Physical Quality Indicators and Effect of Soil Properties on Sgi Index. Journal of Water and Soil. Vol. 25, No.4: 881-891. (In Farsi).

Shukla M.K., Lal R., and Ebinger M. 2006. Determining soil quality indicators by factor analysis. Soil Tillage Res, 87: 194–204.

Sun B., Zhou S.L., and Zhao Q.G. 2003. Evaluation of spatial and temporal changes of soil quality based on geostatistical analysis in the hill region of subtropical China. Geoderma, 115: 85–99.

Wang, X., Gong, Z. 1998. Assessment and analysis of soil quality changes after eleven years of reclamation in subtropical China. Geoderma, 81(3–4), 339-355.