بررسی اثرات مقادیر مختلف آبیاری، تراکم بوته و آرایش کاشت در روش آبیاری قطره‌ای- نواری بر عملکرد، اجزاء عملکرد و کارآیی مصرف آب ذرت دانه‌ای در اسلام‌آباد غرب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 هیئت علمی

2 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه زابل

3 موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب

چکیده

کمبود منابع آب در کشور و بالا بودن تلفات آب در آبیاری سطحی لزوم توجه به روش­ آبیاری تحت‌فشار به‌خصوص آبیاری قطره­ای با لوله­های تیپ (به علت داشتن فشار کارکرد کم و هزینه­های پایین تهیه لوله­ها) و استفاده  بهینه از منابع آبی برای کشت محصولات پرمصرف مثل ذرت را افزایش داده است. در این راستا پژوهش حاضر به‌منظور تعیین اثرات کاربرد مقادیر مختلف آب آبیاری، تراکم بوته و آرایش کاشت بر عملکرد، اجزاء عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب ذرت دانه­ای رقم سینگل کراس 700 (700KSC) با استفاده از سامانه آبیاری قطره­ای نواری (tape)، در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی اسلام‌آباد غرب در دو سال متوالی (1390-1391) انجام گردید. این طرح در قالب طرح آزمایشی فاکتوریل اسپلیت بلوک که نوار عمودی، عامل آبیاری شامل چهار تیمار آبیاری 50، 75، 100 و 125 درصد تبخیر و تعرق گیاه ذرت، و نوار افقی، عامل‌های آرایش کاشت شامل دو آرایش کاشت یک و دو ردیفه و تراکم بوته شامل سه تراکم 65، 75 و 85 هزار بوته در هکتار به‌صورت فاکتوریل با سه تکرار به اجرا درآمد. نتایج نشان داد که مقدار آب آبیاری و تراکم کشت در سطح 1% و اثرات متقابل آنها در سطح 5 درصد  اختلاف معنی­دار بر کارایی مصرف آب ایجاد کردند. تیمار50درصد نیاز آبی ذرت با 8/0 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب و تیمار 100درصد نیاز آبی ذرت با 25/1 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب به ترتیب کمترین و بیشترین کارایی مصرف آب را دارا بودند. مقادیر مختلف آبیاری در سطح 1% در عملکرد اختلاف ایجاد نمود به‌طوری‌که تیمار 125 درصد تبخیر و تعرق گیاه ذرت، با 11320 کیلوگرم در هکتار بیشترین و تیمار 50 درصد تبخیر و تعرق گیاه ذرت، با 3442 کیلوگرم در هکتار کمترین عملکرد را به خود اختصاص داد.  همچنین عملکرد تحت تأثیر  تراکم و آرایش کاشت قرار گرفت و در سطح 1% با یکدیگر اختلاف معنی­دار داشتند. به‌طوری‌که تراکم 65 هزار بوته و آرایش کاشت یک ردیفه به ترتیب با 6596 و 7894 کیلوگرم در هکتار کمترین و تراکم 75 هزار بوته و آرایش کاشت دو ردیفه به ترتیب با 8809 و 8195 کیلوگرم در هکتار بیشترین عملکرد داشتند. اثرات متقابل سطوح آبیاری و تراکم کشت در سطح یک درصد بر عملکرد ایجاد نمود اما اثرات متقابل سطوح آبیاری و آرایش کاشت و همچنین سطوح آبیاری، تراکم و آرایش کاشت، اثر سال و تکرار اختلاف معنی­دار بر هیچ‌یک از عوامل ایجاد نکردند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different levels of irrigation, planting density, Planting pattern in drip irrigation on yield, yield components and water use efficiency of corn

نویسندگان [English]

  • peyman afrasiab 1
  • masumeh delbari 2
  • hossein jafari 3
1 Faculty
3 Soil and Water Research Institute
چکیده [English]

, present study was performed in order to determine effects of different amounts of irrigation water, plant density and planting pattern on yield, yield components and water use efficiency (WUE) of corn, variety single cross 700 (700KSC) using drip irrigation systems (tape) , in the research Station of Islamabadgharb in two consecutive years (2011-2012). The project was in the form of split block factorial experiment design That the vertical bar, was irrigation factor consists of four irrigation treatments of 50, 75, 100 and 125 percent evapotranspiration corn, And horizontal bars, were factor planting pattern include two planting pattern of one and two-row
And plant density consists of three density of 65, 75 and 85 thousand plants per hectare and was implemented as factorial with three replications. The results showed that amount of irrigation and plant density at 1% level and their interactions at the level of 5%, created significant difference on water use efficiency. 50% treatment of the water requirement of corn with 0.8 kilograms per cubic meter and 100% treatment of the water requirement of corn with 1.25 kilograms per cubic meter, respectively, had the lowest and highest water use efficiency. Different amounts of irrigation water created difference at 1% level in yield So that 125% treatment of evapotranspiration of corn, with 11320 kg per hectare had highest yield and 50% treatment of evapotranspiration of corn, with 3442 kg per hectare, had the lowest yield also yield was influenced by the density and planting pattern and had significant Differences at 1% level. So that the density of 65 thousand plants and planting pattern one-row respectively with 6596 and 7894 kg per hectare had the lowest yield and density 75 thousand plants per hectare and planting pattern two-rows respectively with 8809 and 8195 kg per hectare had the highest yield

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • tape drip irrigation
  • evapotranspiration
  • Water depth
  • evaporation pan
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