اثر مصرف روی بر دینامیک آرسنیک در خاک‌های آلوده و ویژگی‌های زراعی سه رقم برنج (Oryzasativa L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، گروه زراعت واصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی ومنابع طبیعی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

3 استاد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

4 عضو هیات علمی موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور

10.22059/ijswr.2022.341841.669248

چکیده

آرسنیک یکی از مهمترین عناصر سنگین آلوده کننده محیط زیست بوده که ثاثیر زیان­باری بر ویژگی‌های مورفولوژیک، فیزیولوژیک و بیوشیمیایی گیاه برنج دارد. یکی از راه­های کاهش اثر سوء آرسنیک استفاده از عنصر روی می­باشد. به این منظور آزمایش گلدانی در فضای آزاد به صورت فاکتوریل سه عاملی در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در بهار سال1398در موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور (رشت) انجام شد. عامل­های مورد مطالعه شامل عنصر روی در سه سطح (صفر،10 و 20 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک از منبع سولفات روی 22 درصد)، عنصر آرسنیک در سه سطح (صفر، 1 و 2  میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک از منبع اکسید آرسنیک)و ارقام برنج در سه سطح شامل (هاشمی، گیلانه و قدسی) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تمامی عامل­ها بر بسیاری از شاخص‌ها و صفت­های اندازه‌گیری شده مانند محتوای روی در خاک، محتوای روی در کاه وکلش و دانه، محتوای آرسنیک در خاک، محتوای آرسنیک در کاه وکلش و دانه، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد پنجه کل، تعداد پنجه بارور، طول خوشه، وزن هزاردانه و عملکرد دانه تاثیر معنی‌داری داشتند. بیشترین مقدار افزایش ارتفاع بوته، تعداد پنجه کل، پنجه بارور، طول خوشه، وزن هزاردانه و عملکرد دانه به ترتیب 5/1، 4/68، 05/85، 5/31، 6/6، و 5/58 درصد ناشی از مصرف خاکی 20 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم روی و بدون کاربرد آرسنیک به ثبت رسید. از نظر محتوای روی در کاه و کلش و دانه، رقم هاشمی>رقم قدسی>رقم گیلانه به ترتیب بالاترین میزان روی را نشان دادند که رقم هاشمی و قدسی از نظر جذب روی کارآمدتر محسوب می­شوند و برای مقابله با آرسنیک متحمل­تر هستند و بیشترین میزان آرسنیک در کاه وکلش و دانه به ترتیب در ارقام گیلانه >قدسی> هاشمی مشاهده شد. بنابراین با توجه به اثر متقابل روی با آرسنیک، استفاده از عنصر روی و ارقامی با توانایی جذب روی بالا می‌تواند روشی مناسب برای کاهش سمیت آرسنیک در گیاه برنج باشد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Zinc application on Arsenic Dynamics in Contaminated Soil and Agronomic traits of Three Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • tayebeh shoja 1
  • ali ebadi 2
  • Masoud Esfahani 3
  • Shahram MahmoudSoltani 4
1 PhD student in Agriculture,Department of Agriculture and Plant Breeding,Faculty of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesMohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran
2 Department of Agriculture and Plant Breeding,Faculty of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesMohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran
3 Professor,Department of Agriculture and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture,University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
4 Academic member of rice research institute of Iran
چکیده [English]

Arsenic as aheavy metal, is one of the most important pollutant in the environment that has a detrimental effect on the morphological, physiological and biochemical properties of rice. Zinc application is one of the way to reduce negative effects of arsenic. For this purpose, an outdoor experiment was performed in the form of three-factor factorial experiment based on complete randomized design with three replications at the Rice Research Institute of Iran (Rasht) during growing season in 2019. The proposed factors were zinc at three levels (0, 10 and 20 mgkg-1) as zinc sulfate, arsenic at three levels (0, 1 and 2 mg kg-1) as Arsenic oxide, and three  rice cultivars (Hashemi, Gilaneh, Ghodsi). The results indicated that all factors had significant effect on the amount of zinc uptake in the soil, straw and grain, amount of arsenic in the soil, straw and grain, plant height, total and fertile tiller number, panicle length, 1000-seed weight, biomass and grain yield.   The uppermost increase in plant height, total tiller number, fertile tillers, panicle length, 1000-seed weight and grain yield were recorded 1.5, 68.4, 85.05, 31.5, 6.6 and 58.5 percent, respectively due to soil application of 20 mg zinc per kg-1. In terms of zinc uptake by straw and grain, Hashemi cultivar> Ghodsi cultivar> Gilaneh cultivar  showed the highest zinc content, respectively, which Hashemi and Ghodsi cultivars are more efficient in terms of zinc uptake and are more tolerant to arsenic. The highest amount of arsenic in straw and grain was observed in Gilaneh> Ghodsi> Hashemi cultivars, respectively. Therefore, due to the interaction of zinc with arsenic, the use of zinc and cultivars with high zinc uptake capacity might be a good way to reduce arsenic toxicity in rice plants.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Micronutrients
  • Heavy Elements
  • Rice
  • Yield and Yield Components
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