بررسی اثر تنش خشکی بر زیست‌فراهمی و قابلیت انباشت زیستی کادمیم، مس و آهن در جو

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران و دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

2 استاد، گروه زراعت، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

4 استادیار، دانشکده کشاورزی، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه جیرفت، کرمان، ایران

10.22059/ijswr.2022.340204.669226

چکیده

ورود فلزات سنگین به خاک از طریق کودهای شیمیایی و آلی، ریسک انتقال آنها را به زنجیره غذایی از طریق تغییر الگوی انباشت کاتیونها در گیاه تحت تأثیر کم‌آبی، افزایش می‌دهد. بمنظور بررسی انباشت کادمیم، مس و آهن توسط گیاه جو بعنوان گیاهی مهم در مناطق خشک، آزمایشی بصورت طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه سطح کم‌آبی شامل آبیاری در 100 (شاهد)، 75 و 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی و چهار مرحله نمونه‌گیری (هر ۱۵ روز) درسه تکرار در سال‌های 1397-1396 و 98-1397 در شهرستان جیرفت اجرا شد. بعد از برداشت جو، کاهش غلظت کادمیم، مس و آهن خاک بترتیب 52، 63 و 23 درصد بود. غلظت آنها در شاخساره گیاه بترتیب66، 85 و 96 درصد نسبت به ریشه کمتر بود. با افزایش کم‌آبی، غلظت آهن باقی‌مانده در خاک و شاخساره افزایش و در ریشه کاهش یافت و غلظت مس در خاک کاهش و در ریشه و شاخساره افزایش یافت درحالیکه غلظت کادمیم در آنها کاهش یافت. شاخص انباشت شاخساره و شاخص انتقال زیستی سه فلز کمتر از یک بودند در حالی‌که شاخص انباشت ریشه مس بالاتر از یک بود و با افزایش سطح کم‌آبی با تفاوت معنی‌دار به 82/6 برابر شاهد رسید. در مدل رگرسیونی چندمتغیره سرعت رشد در دوره‌های رشدی، بیشترین سهم در تبیین واریانس شاخص‌‌ها متعلق به سرعت‌های رشد در سومین و چهارمین دوره پانزده روزه رشد بود. طبق مدل رگرسیونی بین سرعت رشد و شاخص‌های مورد مطالعه، با افزایش سرعت رشد، شاخص انباشت مس ریشه‌‌ها به صورت خطی کاهش (97/0-β=) و شاخص انتقال زیستی برای کادمیم (83/0β=) و مس (86/0=β) افزایش و برای آهن (94/0-β= ) کاهش یافت. نتیجه‌گیری کلی اینکه تحت تنش خشکی هیچکدام از فلزات مورد مطالعه در شاخساره انباشته نشدند هرچند غلظت مس در ریشه‌‌ها 31/3 برابر نسبت به خاک افزایش یافت اما این افزایش منجر به ریسک سمیت‌زایی در شاخساره نشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the effect of drought stress on bioavailability and bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and iron in the Barley

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Madahinasab 1
  • seyed mohsen mousavi nik 2
  • seyed ahmad ghanbari 2
  • Alireza sirousmehr 3
  • Shapour Kouhestani 4
1 Department of agricultural science, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran & Ph.D Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, IRAN
2 Professors, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, IRAN
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, IRAN
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Kerman, IRAN
چکیده [English]

The entry of heavy metals into the soil through fertilizers increases the risk of their transfer to the food chain by changing the pattern of cation accumulation in the plant under the water deficiency. In order to investigate the accumulation of cadmium, copper, and iron by barley, an experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three water deficiency levels (irrigation at 100 (control), 75, and 50% of field capacity) and four sampling stages (each 15 days) in three repetitions in Jiroft region in 2018 and 2019. After harvest, the reduction of soil cadmium, copper, and iron concentrations were 52, 63, and 23%, respectively. Their concentrations in plant shoots were 66, 85, and 96% lower than the ones in roots, respectively. With increasing water deficit, the concentration of residual iron in the soil and shoots increased, and the concentration of copper in soil decreased and increased in roots and shoots, while the cadmium decreased in plant and soil. Copper root accumulation index was higher than one and increased with increasing water deficiency levels, with a significant difference of 6.82 times compared to the control. In the multivariate regression model of growth rate in growth periods, the largest share in explaining the variance of indices belonged to growth rates in the third and fourth fifteen-day periods. According to the regression between growth rate and the indices, with increasing growth rate, the copper accumulation index of roots (β = -0.97) decreased and the translocation index for cadmium (β = 0.83) and copper (β =0.86) increased and for iron (β = -0.94) decreased linearly. In conclusion, under drought stress, none of the studied metals accumulated in the shoots. Although, the concentration of copper in the roots increased 3.31 times as compared to the soil, this increase did not lead any toxicity risk in the shoots.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Heavy metals"
  • "Soil contamination"
  • "Toxicity"
  • "Translocation index"
  • "Water deficiency "
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