اثر آبیاری با پساب تصفیه‌شده مغناطیسی بر جذب برخی فلزات سنگین در کشت ذرت

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی، دانشکدگان کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

2 گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده مهندسی زارعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران.

10.22059/ijswr.2022.340774.669237

چکیده

در حال حاضر و با توجه به بحران شدید منابع آب، استفاده مجدد از پساب فاضلاب تصفیه­شده در بخش کشاورزی حائز اهمیت است. در بین انواع آلاینده­های محیط­زیست، فلزات سنگین موجود در پساب­ها بیشتر مورد توجه می­باشند. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی تأثیر استفاده از پساب مغناطیسی بر میزان جذب فلزات سنگین گیاه ذرت می­باشد. بدین منظور، آزمایشی لایسیمتری در یک دوره کشت و به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1399 در شهرستان بابلسر انجام شد. محل تأمین پساب، تصفیه‌خانه فاضلاب بخش شرقی شهرستان بابلسر بود. تیمارهای آبیاری به روش قطره‌ای و شامل کاربرد 100 درصد آب چاه (W1)، اختلاط 25 درصد پساب و 75 درصد آب چاه (W2)، اختلاط 50 درصد پساب و 50 درصد آب چاه (W3)، اختلاط 75 درصد پساب و 25 درصد آب چاه (W4) و آبیاری با 100 درصد پساب (W5) در شرایط اعمال میدان مغناطیسی (I1) و بدون تأثیر میدان مغناطیسی (I2) بود. در پایان دوره، عناصر سرب، کادمیوم، روی و نیکل در اندام هوایی و دانه گیاه ذرت اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر نوع آبیاری و اختلاط آب و پساب بر غلظت تمامی عناصر در اندام هوایی و دانه گیاه ذرت در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی­­دار شد. با اعمال میدان مغناطیسی غلظت فلزات سرب، کادمیوم، روی و نیکل در اندام هوایی گیاه به­ترتیب 84/17، 9/15، 22/14 و 92/13 درصد نسبت به تیمار غیرمغناطیسی کاهش داشت. کاهش عناصر فوق در دانه گیاه ذرت به­ترتیب برابر 97/13، 52/14، 95/12 و 71/13 درصد بود. با افزایش درصد پساب مورد استفاده در آبیاری، غلظت تمامی عناصر افزایش معنی­­داری یافت. بیشترین مقدار غلظت عناصر در اندام هوایی و دانه گیاه ذرت مربوط به عنصر روی به ترتیب با مقدار 19/93 و 32/74 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم بود. کمترین غلظت جذب فلزات سنگین در اندام هوایی و دانه گیاه ذرت به­ترتیب مربوط به کادمیوم (73/0 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم) و نیکل (61/3 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم) بود که همگی از تیمار W5 به دست آمدند. بنابراین با استفاده از فن­آوری مغناطیسی می­توان تجمع فلزات سنگین موجود در پساب‌ها در خاک را کاهش داد و از جذب آن توسط ذرت جلوگیری کرد. با توجه به جذب زیاد عناصر توسط گیاه ذرت، در هنگام آبیاری با پساب تصفیه­خانه­ها انتخاب گیاهانی که پتانسیل تجمع فلزات سنگین کمتری داشته و به مصرف مستقیم انسان و دام نمی‌رسد، قابل توصیه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Irrigation with Magnetically Treated Effluent on Uptake of Some Heavy Metals in Maize Cultivation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Pourgholam-Amiji 1
  • Mojtaba Khoshravesh 2
1 Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
2 1- Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.
چکیده [English]

At present, due to the severe crisis of water resources, the reuse of treated effluent and wastewater in the agricultural sector is of great importance. Heavy metals in wastewater are the most important types of environmental pollutants. The goal of this research is to investigate the effect of using magnetically treated effluent on the uptake of heavy metals in maize. For this purpose, a factorial experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2020 at Babolsar city. Treatments included irrigation with well water (W1), irrigation with mixed water (25% of effluent and 75% of well water, W2), irrigation with the mixed water (50% of effluent and 50% of well water, W3), irrigation with mixed water (75% of effluent and 25% of well water (W4), irrigation with 100% effluent (W5) under magnetic field (I1) and without magnetic field effect (I2). At the end of the period, the elements of lead, cadmium, zinc and nickel were measured in aerial parts and seeds of maize. The results showed that the effect of irrigation type and mixed water on the concentration of all elements in aerial parts and seeds of maize was significant at the level of one percent probability. By applying a magnetic field, the concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc and nickel in the aerial parts of plant decreased by 17.84, 15.9, 14.22 and 13.92% compared to non-magnetic treatment, respectively. With increasing the percentage of effluent in the mixed water for irrigation, the concentration of all elements increased significantly. The maximum concentration of elements in aerial parts and seeds of maize was related to zinc, which was 93.19 and 74.32 mg/kg respectively. The lowest concentrations of heavy metal uptake in aerial parts and seeds of maize were cadmium (0.73 mg/kg) and nickel (3.61 mg/kg), which were corresponded to W5 treatment. Therefore, by using magnetic effluent as irrigation, the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil can be reduced and its absorption by maize can be prevented. Due to the high uptake of elements by the maize plant, when irrigating with effluents, it is advisable to select plants that have less potential for the accumulation of heavy metals.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mixing Water and Effluent
  • Lead
  • Cadmium
  • Zinc
  • Nickel
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